从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

写在前面

8月15日,塔利班攻占阿富汗首都喀布尔,至此全面接管阿富汗。这条新闻轰动了全世界,占据了所有国际新闻的头条。喀布尔机场里阿富汗人追赶、攀爬飞机的场景令人震惊。们今天来阅读两则《纽约时报》的报道:一则描述了喀布尔机场里的场景;一则是对美国撤军的评价。
外刊原文

大家先独立阅读一遍原文,有读不懂的地方不要紧,后面会有详细的讲解。 

第一则:

Thousands of desperate Afghans trying to escape the Taliban takeover swarmed Kabul’s main international airport on Monday, rushing the boarding gates, mobbing the runways, clambering atop the wings of jets and even trying to cling to the fuselage of departing American military planes.

 

At least half a dozen Afghans were killed in the chaos, some falling from the skies as they lost their grasp, and at least two shot by American soldiers trying to contain the surging crowds.

 

The images evoked America’s frantic departure from Vietnam, encapsulating Afghanistan’s breathtaking collapse in the wake of American abandonment.

 

As American troops sought to manage the exodus, seizing air traffic control to prioritize military flights evacuating Western citizens and flying Apache helicopters low over the crowds to clear the runway, Taliban fighters capped a swift and devastating lunge for power, posing for an iconic photo behind the ornate presidential desk in the presidential palace hours after President Ashraf Ghani had fled the country.

 

第二则:

Mr. Biden will go down in history, fairly or unfairly, as the president who presided over a long-brewing, humiliating final act in the American experiment in Afghanistan. After seven months in which his administration seemed to exude much-needed competence — getting more than 70 percent of the country’s adults vaccinated, engineering surging job growth and making progress toward a bipartisan infrastructure bill — everything about America’s last days in Afghanistan shattered the imagery.

 

外刊精读

我们先来看第一则新闻。首段,作者用一连串的动词刻画了阿富汗人涌入喀布尔机场、试图爬上飞机逃离阿富汗的情景。
Thousands of desperate Afghans trying to escape the Taliban takeover swarmed Kabul’s main international airport on Monday, rushing the boarding gates, mobbing the runways, clambering atop the wings of jets and even trying to cling to the fuselage of departing American military planes.
周一,成千上万走投无路的阿富汗人蜂拥至喀布尔主要的国际机场,试图在塔利班接管政权之际逃离。他们冲向登机口,聚集在跑道上,爬到机翼上,甚至试图抓牢即将起飞的美军飞机。

 

  • 这句话比较长,结构稍微有点复杂,我们来拆分一下:
    句子的主干是主谓宾结构:
    Thousands of desperate Afghans
    (trying to escape the Taliban takeover)  (主语)// swarmed (谓语)// Kabul’s main international airport (宾语)on Monday(时间状语). 

  • 括号里的trying to escape the Taliban takeover的现在分词作后置定语,修饰desperate Afghans,指「试图在塔利班接管政权之际逃离的// 绝望的阿富汗人」。

  • 逗号后面是四个现在分词短语作句子的伴随状语,说明阿富汗人涌入机场后动作,画面感极强:

  • ..., rushing the boarding gates, mobbing the runways, clambering atop the wings of jets and even trying to cling to the fuselage of departing American military planes.  

  • 结构理清楚了,我们再来看看句中的词汇:

  • takeover 为名词,指「强行接管,夺取控制」(an act of taking control of a country, an area or a political organization by force)

  • swarm [swɔːm] 为动词,指「蜂拥成群」(to move around in a large group)swarm +地点,便表示「蜂拥至某地」。

  • 主语可以是「人」也可以是「动物」,也可以是挤满了人或动物的「空间」。我们来看几个例子:

    The flies swarmed around the meat. 苍蝇成群飞来围着肉转。Photographers were swarming around Liu Yifei.摄影师们一窝蜂似地围在刘亦菲身边。

    The beaches were swarming with tourists. 海滩熙熙攘攘挤满了游客。 

  • swarm with sth也可以引申至抽象事物,比如这本书错误百出:The book swarms with errors.

  • 电影《利刃出鞘》里也出现过这个词:

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

  • mob [mɑːb] 作名词,是「暴民」的意思,作动词,指「涌向,蜂拥而至」。

  • runway 为名词,指「跑道」。

  • clamber [ˈklæmbər] 为动词,指吃力地「攀登,攀爬 」(to climb or move with difficulty or a lot of effort, using your hands and feet)

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

  • atop [əˈtɑː p]为介词,指「在…顶上,在…上面」,相当于on top of sth

  • cling [klɪŋ] 为动词,指「抓紧,紧抱」,惯用搭配是cling to sb / sth, cling on to sb / sth。文中cling to the fuselage 即「紧紧抱住飞机机身」。

    cling to sth / cling on to sth 还可表示抽象意义上的「不愿放弃;坚持」(to continue to believe or do something, even though it may not be true or useful any longer)。

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

  • fuselage [ˈfjuːzəlɑːʒ] 指飞机的「机身」。
  • depart [dɪ'pɑːt] 的基本含义是「离开」,类似于我们熟悉的leave含义十分丰富,主要有下面几个:
  • 1.离开某个位置即「出发」。文中departing为现在分词作定语修饰American military plane,指「即将起飞的美军飞机」。再举个例子:He departs for Beijing tomorrow morning. 他明天早晨出发去北京。
  • 2.离开工作即「离职」。比如:He departed his job December 16. 他于 12  16 日离职。
  • 3.离开人世即「去世」。depart this life 告别此生,是比die委婉许多的表达。
  • 4.离开常规即「违反」。比如:It’s revolutionary music; it departs from the old form and structures.这是革命性的音乐,突破了旧的形式和结构。
    ✏️ 英语单词的一词多义都是从基本含义通过映射和联想的方式延伸而来,大家在背单词的时候可以将多个义项联系起来记忆,提升背单词的效率。
  • depart 的名词形式是departure。下次去机场时可以注意看看「国内出发」的英文标志,写的就是Domestic Departures

 第二段承接上文,说明该事件的伤亡。 
At least half a dozen Afghans were killed in the chaos, some falling from the skies as they lost their grasp, and at least two shot by American soldiers trying to contain the surging crowds.
至少有六名阿富汗人在混乱中丧生。有人没抓牢,从空中坠落,而且至少有两人在美军士兵试图控制住涌动的人群时被美军开枪击中。
  • chaos [ˈkeɪɑs]为不可数名词,指「混乱;杂乱;紊乱」(a state of complete confusion and lack of order)

  • 我们来看一看这段话的结构:
    主干是主语+谓语+状语结构:At least half a dozen Afghans(主语)// were killed(谓语)// in the chaos(地点状语).
    逗号后面是and连接的两个独立主格结构,在句中作状语。
    ..,
    some  // falling from the skies as they lost their grasp, and at least two  // shot by American soldiers trying to contain the surging crowds.
    第一个独立主格结构由代词+现在分词构成:
    some // falling from the skies as they lost their grasp
    第二个独立主格由代词+过去分词构成:
    at least two // shot by American soldiers trying to contain the surging crowds
  • 我们可以把这句话拆分成三个独立、完整的句子。
    ①At least half a dozen Afghans were killed in the chaos.
    ②Some fell from the skies as they lost their grasp.
    ③At least two were shot by American soldiers trying to contain the surging crowds.
  • 作者用两个独立主格结构把三句话衔接了起来,结构更加紧密。
  • 我们在长难句班详细讲过独立主格的用法和各种类型,老学员们可以再回头复习一下。
  • grasp [græsp] 为名词,指「紧抓;紧握;控制」(a firm hold of sb / sth or control over sb / sth)
  • grasp 还可表示「理解力,领会」。惯用搭配为have a good / firm / through grasp of sth。举个两个电影和美剧的例子:

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

    At this point, you should have a firm grasp of the French language.
    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

    Well, I certainly have a firmer grasp on reality now.

  • grasp 还可作动词,表示「紧抓」,「理解,领会」。

  • contain 为动词,指「控制,抑制」,contain the surging crowd 即「控制涌动的人群」。「控制疫情」也可以用这个词:contrain the spread of the coronavirus。

  • surge 作动词,除了我们熟悉的「激增」的意思,还可指「汹涌,迅速涌动,蜂拥向前」(to suddenly move very quickly in a particular direction )。文中surging为现在分词作定语修饰crowds,the surging crowds指「汹涌的人群」。

    比如《纽约时报》一篇去年中国南方洪灾的文章有这样一句话:Authorities in central China blasted a dam Sunday to release surging waters behind it amid widespread flooding across the country that has claimed scores of lives.中国各地爆发洪灾,已经导致大量人员丧生。为泄洪,周日,中国中部的相关部门炸掉了一座水坝。

 
The images evoked America’s frantic departure from Vietnam, encapsulating Afghanistan’s breathtaking collapse in the wake of American abandonment.
此情此景让人想起美国仓惶从越南撤离的情景,是阿富汗被美国放弃后轰然陷落的一个缩影。
  • evoke [ɪˈvoʊk] 为名词,指「引起,唤起」(to bring a feeling, a memory or an image into your mind),后面往往跟感情、记忆或形象。比如《纽约时报》曾这样形容一则肯德基的广告:The actors are then jolted back into the present on a high-speed bullet train to sporting events that evoke the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and to young people using smartphones and cheering at pop music concerts.演员又飞回现在,坐着一辆高速列车去看体育赛事,这让人联想到2008年北京奥运会,年轻人们使用智能手机,在演唱会上欢呼。
    ✏️用近义词记生词:evoke sth ≈ bring sth into mind, recall sth
  • frantic [ˈfræn.tɪk] 为形容词,形容物,指「紧张忙乱的」(extremely hurried and using a lot of energy, but not very organized)。举个例子:I spent three frantic days trying to get everything ready.我花了三天时间手忙脚乱地做准备。
    ✏️用近义词记生词:frantic  ≈ hectic
  • frantic形容人,指「发疯似的;情绪失控的」(extremely worried and frightened about a situation, so that you cannot control your feelings)。比如《纽约时报》一篇关于拐卖儿童的文章有这样一句话:A frantic Mr. Guo and his wife, along with family, neighbors and friends, fanned out across the region to search for the boy.为了寻找这个男孩,急疯了的郭刚堂和他的妻子,连同家人、邻居和朋友翻遍了整个地区。
  • departure [dɪˈpɑːtər] 为depart的名词,指「离开」。英国的脱欧就可以用Britain’s departure from the European Union来表达。

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

  • 也可表示「背离,违反」。比如:It was a radical departure from tradition. 这从根本上违背了传统。
  • encapsulate [ɪnˈkæpsjʊleɪt] 为动词,指「简述;概括;压缩」(to express or show something in a short way),相当于我们熟悉的sum up。文中encapsulate 可以理解为「是...的缩影」。
  • breathtaking为形容词,表示「激动人心的;惊人的;令人惊叹的」(very impressive, exciting, or surprising)

    电影《傲慢与偏见》里也用过这个词:

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

    来自于动词短语:take one's breath away  拿走某人的呼吸,表示美得或惊讶得「令人喘不过气来,使人惊叹」(If you say that something takes your breath away, you are emphasizing that it is extremely beautiful or surprising)

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

  • collapse 此处为名词,指「突然倒塌,崩溃,瓦解」。
  • wake 作名词,可表示「尾流、航迹」(the wave that spreads behind a boat as it moves forward in the water)
    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人
  • 由此引申出一个很形象的表达: in the wake of sb/sth 表示「随着…而来,作为…的结果」(coming after or following sb / sth)
  • 当我们想表示 after sthas a result of sth following sth时,很多时候可以都用 in the wake of sb/sth来替换。 [写作推荐]
 
As American troops sought to manage the exodus, seizing air traffic control to prioritize military flights evacuating Western citizens and flying Apache helicopters low over the crowds to clear the runway, Taliban fighters capped a swift and devastating lunge for power, posing for an iconic photo behind the ornate presidential desk in the presidential palace hours after President Ashraf Ghani had fled the country.
当美军试图控制人群、把持住航空控制权以优先用军机撤离西方公民,并派遣阿帕奇直升机低空飞行以驱离跑道上的人群之际,塔利班士兵正向政权发起快速而猛烈的进攻。在总统阿什拉夫·加尼逃离阿富汗几个小时后,塔利班士兵就在总统府装饰华丽的总统办公桌后拍下了历史性的照片。

  • 这句话由as引导的时间状语从句+主句构成。

  • 我们先来看一看as引导的时间状语从句:

    As American troops sought to manage the exodus, seizing air traffic control to prioritize military flights (evacuating Western citizens) and flying Apache helicopters low over the crowds to clear the runway, ...
    1)逗号后面是seizing sth and flying sth low 是现在分词短语作伴随状语。

    2)而括号中的evacuting 是现在分词短语作后置定语,修饰military flights,指「撤离西方公民的 // 军事航班」。
    我们再来看主句:

    Taliban fighters capped a swift and devastating lunge for power, posing for an iconic photo behind the ornate presidential desk in the presidential palace hours after President Ashraf Ghani had fled the country.

    1)主句的主干为主谓宾结构:Taliban fighters // capped // a swift and devastating lunge for power, ...

    2)逗号后面的prosing for... 是一个现在分词短语作句子的伴随状语。
    3)在该伴随状语中,还有包含一个时间状语从句:hours after President Ashraf Ghani had fled the country 指「在总统阿什拉夫·加尼逃离国家的数小时后」

  • seek to do sth 表示「力图做某事;想方设法做某事」(If you seek to do something, you try to do it),可以与我们熟悉的try to do sth 替换。注意seek的动词变形是seek-sought-sought

  • manage sth 指「完成某事」(to succeed in doing sth, especially sth difficult),尤其是指完成某件困难的事。

  • exodus [ˈeksədəs] 为名词,指「大批离去;成群撤离」(If there is an exodus of people from a place, a lot of people leave that place at the same time)。这个词来自《圣经旧约》,我们熟悉的「出埃及记」,就叫the Exodus。后来the exodus泛指大规模的离开。比如《经济学人》一篇关于一大批美国高技术人才离开美国,去往加拿大的文章就用到了这个词:People like Mr Rangnekar are part of an exodus of tech workers from Silicon Valley.朗纳卡是大批从硅谷出走的技术人员中的一个。

  • seize [siːz] 为动词,表示「夺取,攻占,控制」(to take control of a place or situation, often suddenly and violently),常常指通过暴力突然攻占。

  • 短语seize control of sth 是一个惯用搭配,指「控制」。

  • seize 的本义是「抓住」,还可表示「抓住,把握」机会、时机等等。举个例子:

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人
    So I think we should seize the opportunity.
  • prioritize [praɪˈɒrɪtaɪz]  为动词,指「优先处理」。文中prioritize military flights evacuating Western citizens 便表示「优先用军机撤离西方公民」。
  • evacuate  [ɪˈvæk.ju.eɪt]为动词,指「疏散,转移,撤离」。名词为evacuation
  • 我们在河南暴雨那篇文章也学到过这个词:China’s flood-stricken Henan province will be bracing for more heavy rain, just a day after a deluge sparked the evacuation of 165,000 people and left at least 25 dead.

  • cap 此处为动词,指「完成;使圆满完成」。再举个例子:This conference capped weeks of negotiations between the two parties.这次会议圆满结束了双方几周以来的谈判。 [写作推荐]

  • lunge [lʌndʒ]作名词,指「猛冲;猛扑」,惯用搭配是a lunge for sb / sth, a lunge at sb

  • icon 为名词,是「偶像」的意思,iconic [aɪˈkɑnɪk] 为形容词,表示「偶像级的,非常出名的,标志性的」。《经济学人》一篇关于四川火锅的文章也用到了这个词:But Chengdu’s plans for a museum suggest that Sichuan hotpot is not only growing in popularity, but is also becoming iconic. 但成都的博物馆计划表明,四川火锅不但越来越受欢迎,而且正在成为标志性的东西。

  • ornate [ɔːˈneɪt]为形容词,指「华美的;富丽的;豪华的」(covered with a lot of decoration)。同源词还有ornament为名词,指「装饰品」。

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

  • flee为动词,指「逃避,逃跑,迅速离开」(to leave somewhere very quickly, in order to escape from danger)。我们可以直接说flee+地点,也可以说flee to / from / into +地点

  • flight 是其名词形式,表示「逃避,躲避」。我们在塞林格的短篇小说《破碎故事之心》里也遇见过这个词:Horgenschlag's flight, let's say, is now arrested.霍根施拉格的溃逃,姑且这么说,终于被制止了。这里arrest是「阻止,终止」的意思。

     

 

《纽约时报》如何评价美国的撤军呢?8月16日的一篇文章里用了humiliating这个词。

Mr. Biden will go down in history, fairly or unfairly, as the president who presided over a long-brewing, humiliating final act in the American experiment in Afghanistan.  After seven months in which his administration seemed to exude much-needed competence — getting more than 70 percent of the country’s adults vaccinated, engineering surging job growth and making progress toward a bipartisan infrastructure bill — everything about America’s last days in Afghanistan shattered the imagery.
不论对其评价是否公允,拜登将因此被载入史册,作为美国总统,他在任上执导了美国在阿富汗试验的最后一幕,这一幕酝酿多年,结局却是颜面尽失。上台七个月后,拜登政府似乎展现了亟需的能力:超过70%的美国成年人已经接种了疫苗,促进了就业快速增长,并推动两党共识,在基建法案上取得突破。但美国在阿富汗最后的日子却打破了这一美好形象。
  • go down in history make history 一样,表示「青史留名,创造历史,载入史册」(to be or do sth so important that it will be recorded in history)

  • preside over / at sth 指「领导,负责」(to be in a position of authority at a time when important things are happening),可以替换我们熟悉的lead sth。

  • long-brewing 是由long和brew合成的形容词, brew 作动词,指「酝酿」,long-brewing 便表示「酝酿已久的」。

  • exude [ɪgˈzuːd] 为动词,指「流露,显露」(if you exude a particular feeling or quality, or it exudes from you, people can easily see that you have it)。既能以人为主语,也可以物为主语。举个例子:

    She exuded confidence.她显得信心十足。

    A dogged air of confidence exuded. 坚定不移的信心显露无遗。

  • much-needed 是一个合成的形容词,被非常需要的,指「急需的,迫切需要的」。

  • engineer 此处为动词,指「谋划,策划」(to make something happen by skilful secret planning),是一个熟词僻义。 [熟词僻义]

    从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人

  • surge 此处是「激增」的意思,surging job growth 即「快速的就业增长」。
  • shatter 为动词,指「粉碎,破灭」(to destroy sth completely, especially sb's feelings, hopes or beliefs; to be destroyed in this way)。shatter the imagery 便指「打破美国的这种形象」。
  • 联系疫情造个句子:环顾全球,许多留学生的梦想都被疫情粉碎。

    Around the world the dreams of many international students have been shattered by the pandemic.

  • imagery [ˈɪm.ɪ.dʒəri] 为不可数名词,指「想象,意象」(You can refer to pictures and representations of things as imagery, especially when they act as symbols)

  • imagery 还可表示「照片,图像」,比如卫星影像:satellite imagery

原文始发于微信公众号(独霸上海的妖怪):从《追风筝的人》到追飞机的人