为什么商家定价喜欢以9结尾呢?9.9,19.9,59.9…

又是一年双十一,你买东西了吗?

 

9.9元,99.9元...你有没有想过这个问题?直接用整数10元,100元呢?

借(cèng)此(gè)机(rè)会(diǎn),我们来看看与定价相关的心理学研究,同一样商品,11.99,12.00,11.67的价格有什么区别呢?

无注释原文:

 

The Psychological Difference Between $12.00 and $11.67

The Atlantic

By Bourree Lam

JANUARY 30, 2015

Consumers are primed to see ".99," but prices that deviate from that format can affect the way they interpret the cost.

 

Of the lunch spots near my office, the chain Le Pain Quotidien's menu always demands more of my attention than others. The reason that the menu at Le Pain Quotidien is unusual isn't because they serve open-faced sandwiches or that I'm not sure what kind of cheese Fourme d’Ambert is, but rather that their prices aren't formatted like those of other shops. Organic egg frittata costs $12.00, curried chicken salad tartine is $12.25, a large cappuccino is $5.35. In a world where most prices end with ".99," Le Pain Quotidien's prices make my brain hurt.

The "undercover" economist Tim Harford (he has a book and writes column at the Financial Times by that title) has explained the theories for why prices in our world end in "9." First is something called the left-digit effect, which suggests that consumers just can't be bothered to read to the end of prices. The mind puts the most emphasis on the number on the far-left, so even though $59.99 is closer to $60, it's the "5" that registers. The other theory is that prices ending in ".99" signal a deal to consumers. In short, consumers seem to like prices that end in "9," and experiments say that pricing things this way increases purchases.

Despite the ubiquitous "9" pricing practice, most numbers used in everyday life are whole numbers. It's not common to say, "just give me 5.27 minutes." But why do Le Pain Quotidien's prices still make my mind reel? A new study in the Journal of Consumer Research might have the answer. Researchers found that shoppers deal with pricing information differently when prices feature round numbers ("5"), as opposed to non-round ones ("4.99"). When something costs $100, consumers tend to rely on their feelings, whereas when something has an irregular price—such as $98.67—consumers have to use reason to compute whether it's a good price.

Monica Wadhwa and Kuangjie Zhang, assistant professors of marketing at INSEAD and at Nanyang Business School respectively, conducted five experiments to test this. They found that the prices of different types are evaluated in different ways. For example, products that are recreational or luxurious benefit from rounded prices: Consumers were more inclined to buy a bottle of champagne when it was priced at $40.00 rather than at $39.72 or $40.28. However, for purchases that are utilitarian—a calculator, in this experiment—participants were more likely to buy at the higher non-rounded price. In another experiment, participants were told that a camera was purchased for leisure (a family vacation) or for a class project. They preferred rounded prices when it was for vacation, and non-rounded prices for class projects.

It seems Le Pain Quotidien is currently employing both of these types of pricing—which might be why I get so discombobulated. As lunch is a matter of the stomach, round prices would probably make their menu less of a numerical challenge. And according to other studies, restaurant consumers associate higher quality with whole dollar amounts and disproportionately prefer them. The difference between $12.75 and $13.00 might not mean much to some customers, but to me—and maybe the rest of the huge lunch crowd—round prices might make for a happier, and less stressful, meal.

 

- ◆ -

 

注:中文文本为机器翻译仅供参考,并非一一对应

注释全文:

The Psychological Difference Between $12.00 and $11.67

The Atlantic

By Bourree Lam

JANUARY 30, 2015

Consumers are primed to see ".99," but prices that deviate from that format can affect the way they interpret the cost.

消费者预期看到“.99”的价格,但如果价格不同于这一格式就会影响他们理解商品成本的方式。

 

prime

 

作动词,表示“事先给(某人)提供情况,使有所准”,英文解释为“to tell someone something that will prepare them for a particular situation举个🌰:

I'd been primed so I knew not to mention her son.

因为事先得到提醒,所以我知道不要提及她的儿子。

 

deviate

 

deviate /ˈdiːvɪˌeɪt/意思是“背离,偏离,违背”,英文解释为“to change what you are doing so that you are not following an expected plan, idea, or type of behaviour”,通常用法是deviate from ...,如:飞机偏离正常航线 deviate from its normal flight path;完全背离了媒体职业道德 completely deviate from professional media ethics.

 

format

 

作名词,1)表示“格式”,英文解释为“the way in which data is stored or held to be worked on by a computer”

 

2)表示“总体安排计划;”,英文解释为“the general arrangement, plan, design, etc. of sth举个🌰:

The format of the new quiz show has proved popular.

新的智力竞赛节目的总体安排结果证明很受欢迎。

 

作动词,3)表示“(尤指在计算机上)安排…的版式”(to organize or arrange text, especially on a computer, according to a chosen pattern)。

 

interpret

1)表示“诠释;说明”,英文解释为“to explain the meaning of sth举个🌰:

The students were asked to interpret the poem.

学生们被要求诠释那首诗的意义。

2)表示“把…理解为;领会”,英文解释为“to decide that sth has a particular meaning and to understand it in this way 举个🌰:

The data can be interpreted in many different ways.

这份资料可以从多方面解读。

3)表示“演绎(按自己的感觉演奏音乐或表现角色)”,英文解释为“to perform a piece of music, a role in a play, etc. in a way that shows your feelings about its meaning举个🌰:

He interpreted the role with a lot of humour.

他把这个角色演得十分幽默。

4)表示“翻译,口译”(to change what someone is saying into another language)。

 

 

Of the lunch spots near my office, the chain Le Pain Quotidien's menu always demands more of my attention than others. The reason that the menu at Le Pain Quotidien is unusual isn't because they serve open-faced sandwiches or that I'm not sure what kind of cheese Fourme d'Ambert is, but rather that their prices aren't formatted like those of other shops. Organic egg frittata costs $12.00, curried chicken salad tartine is $12.25, a large cappuccino is $5.35. In a world where most prices end with ".99," Le Pain Quotidien's prices make my brain hurt.

在我办公室附近的午餐地点中,连锁店Le Pain Quotidien的菜单总是比其他地方更能引起我的关注。Le Pain Quotidien的菜单之所以不寻常,并不是因为他们提供外陷三明治,也不是因为我不知道Fourme d'Ambert是什么奶酪,而是因为他们定价的格式和其他商店不太一样。有机鸡蛋煎饼要12.00美元,咖喱鸡肉沙拉三明治要12.25美元,大杯卡布奇诺(cappuccino)要5.35美元。在一个大多数价格以“.99”结尾的世界里,Le Pain Quotidien的价格让我头疼。

 

chain

 

表示“连锁商店”,英文解释为“a group of shops/stores or hotels owned by the same company”。

 

open-faced sandwich

 

open-faced sandwich,英式说法:open sandwich,表示“外陷三明治,单片三明治,开放式三明治”,英文解释为“a single slice of bread with various types of food, such as cheese or cold meat, on the top”

 

开放式三明治(英语:open sandwich,法语:tartine)是涂有或供涂黄油等的面包片或吐司片,如涂果酱的面包片。

为什么商家定价喜欢以9结尾呢?9.9,19.9,59.9...

 

frittata

 

frittata /frɪˈtɑːtə/ 表示“意式蛋饼(将打散的鸡蛋与小片的奶酪、土豆或蔬菜等一起煎制制成)”,英文解释为“an Italian dish made by mixing eggs and frying them with small pieces of other food such as cheese, potatoes, or vegetables”

为什么商家定价喜欢以9结尾呢?9.9,19.9,59.9...

The "undercover" economist Tim Harford (he has a book and writes column at the Financial Times by that title) has explained the theories for why prices in our world end in "9." First is something called the left-digit effect, which suggests that consumers just can't be bothered to read to the end of prices. The mind puts the most emphasis on the number on the far-left, so even though $59.99 is closer to $60, it's the "5" that registers. The other theory is that prices ending in ".99" signal a deal to consumers. In short, consumers seem to like prices that end in "9," and experiments say that pricing things this way increases purchases.

蒂姆·哈福德(他有一本书名叫卧底经济学,并他在《金融时报》上以该标题撰写专栏)已经解释了为什么我们的世界中价格以“9”结尾的理论。首先是所谓的左位数效应,这表明消费者只是懒得读到价格的最后。人们的思维最重视最左边的数字,所以即使59.99美元更接近于60美元,它还是“5”。另一个理论是,以“.99”结尾的价格向消费者向消费者表示交易。简而言之,消费者似乎喜欢以“9”结尾的价格,而且实验表明,以这种方式定价会增加购买量。

 

register

1)表示“(尤指把姓名)登记,注册,记录”,英文解释为“to put information, especially your name, into an official list or record举个🌰:

I registered the car in my name.

我把车登记在我的名下。

2)表示“显示(读数);记录”,英文解释为“if a measuring instrument registers an amount or sth registers an amount on a measuring instrument, the instrument shows or records that amount举个🌰:

The thermometer registered 25°C.

温度计显示读数为25摄氏度。

 

3)表示“(事物)受到注意,被意识到;(人)注意到,意识到”,英文解释为“If something registers, someone realizes it and if someone registers something, they realize it.举个🌰:

I did mention the address but I'm not sure that it registered (with him).

我确实提到过地址,但是(他)听没听进去,我就没有把握了。

📍register一词,我们常见的含义是注册,登记。政府工作报告中也经常会出现这个词,比如今年2020政府工作报告中提到的:

先进制造业现代服务业较快增长。
Advanced manufacturing and modern services registered rapid growth.

以及2018年报告中提到的:

国内生产总值从54万亿元增加到82.7万亿元,年均增长7.1%,
China's gross domestic product (GDP) has risen from 54 trillion to 82.7 trillion yuan, registering average annual growth of 7.1 percent;

都有“显示;指示;表达”的含义(to record, show, or express something)。

 

things

 

things复数形式,熟词僻义,表示“(个人的)用品,衣服;(某种)用具”,英文解释为“objects, clothing or tools that belong to sb or are used for a particular purpose”。

 

 

Despite the ubiquitous "9" pricing practice, most numbers used in everyday life are whole numbers. It's not common to say, "just give me 5.27 minutes." But why do Le Pain Quotidien's prices still make my mind reel? A new study in the Journal of Consumer Research might have the answer. Researchers found that shoppers deal with pricing information differently when prices feature round numbers ("5"), as opposed to non-round ones ("4.99"). When something costs $100, consumers tend to rely on their feelings, whereas when something has an irregular price—such as $98.67—consumers have to use reason to compute whether it's a good price.

尽管“9”的定价方式无处不在,但日常生活中使用的大多数数字都是整数。说“给我5.27分钟”是不常见的。但是,为什么Le Pain Quotidien的价格仍然让我感到昏头转向?《消费者研究杂志》(Journal of Consumer Research)上的一项新研究可能有了答案。研究人员发现,当价格用约整数(“5”)表示时,与非整数(“4.99”)相比,购物者处理定价信息的方式不同。当一件东西的价格为100美元时,消费者倾向于依靠他们的感觉,而当一件东西的价格不规则时--如98.67美元--消费者必须使用理性来计算它是否是一个好价格。

 

ubiquitous

ubiquitous表示“无所不在的”,英文解释为“If you describe something or someone as ubiquitous, you mean that they seem to be everywhere.”举个🌰:

Coffee shops are ubiquitous these days.

如今好像到处都是咖啡馆。

意思相近的一个形容词:

📍pervasive表示“到处存在的,到处弥漫着的,遍布的”,英文解释为“Something, especially something bad, that is pervasive is present or felt throughout a place or thing.如:the pervasive influence of mobile phones in daily life 手机在日常生活中无处不在的影响。

 

whole number

 

表示“整数”,英文解释为“a number, such as 1, 3, or 17, that has no fractions and no digits after the decimal point”。

 

round number

 

在整数里,指的是“用整十、整百等来表示的约整数”,A round number is informally considered to be an integer that ends with one or more "0"s (zero-digit) in a given base. So, 590 is rounder than 592, but 590 is less round than 600.

 

在小数里,These notions of roundness are also often applied to non-integer numbers; so, in any given base, 2.3 is rounder than 2.297, because 2.3 can be written as 2.300. Thus, a number with fewer digits which are not trailing "0"s is considered to be rounder than others of the same or greater precision.

 

reel

 

表示“发懵到眩晕”,英文解释为“If you reel, or your mind or brain reels, you feel very confused or shocked and unable to act.举个🌰:

We were reeling (in amazement/shock/delight, etc.) from/with the news that we had won all that money.

得知赢了那么多钱,我们都(惊愕得/震惊得/高兴得)发蒙了。

 

 

Monica Wadhwa and Kuangjie Zhang, assistant professors of marketing at INSEAD and at Nanyang Business School respectively, conducted five experiments to test this.

欧洲工商管理学院(INSEAD)和南洋商学院(Nanyang Business School)的营销学助理教授莫妮卡·瓦德瓦(Monica Wadhwa)和张匡杰(Kuangjie Zhang)分别进行了五个实验来对此进行测试。

 

They found that the prices of different types are evaluated in different ways. For example, products that are recreational or luxurious benefit from rounded prices: Consumers were more inclined to buy a bottle of champagne when it was priced at $40.00 rather than at $39.72 or $40.28. However, for purchases that are utilitarian—a calculator, in this experiment—participants were more likely to buy at the higher non-rounded price. In another experiment, participants were told that a camera was purchased for leisure (a family vacation) or for a class project. They preferred rounded prices when it was for vacation, and non-rounded prices for class projects.

他们发现,不同类型的价格有不同的评价方式。例如,整数价格对休闲或奢华的产品有利。当一瓶香槟的价格为40.00美元,而不是39.72美元或40.28美元时,消费者更倾向于购买这瓶香槟。然而,对于实用性产品--在这个实验中,比如计算器--参与者更有可能以较高的非整数价格购买。在另一个实验中,参与者被告知购买一台相机是为了休闲(家庭度假)或为了一个班级项目。当是为了度假时,他们更喜欢整数价格,而在课堂项目中则喜欢非整数价格。

 

recreational

表示“娱乐的;消遣的”,英文解释为“connected with activities that people do for enjoyment when they are not working”如:recreational activities/facilities 娱乐活动/设施。

 

inclined

表示“倾向于…”,英文解释为“likely or wanting to do something举个🌰:

Tom is inclined to be lazy.

汤姆喜欢偷懒。

 

utilitarian

utilitarian /juːˌtɪlɪˈtɛərɪən/ 1)表示“功利主义者”,英文解释为“A utilitarian is someone with utilitarian views.”举个🌰:

One of the greatest utilitarians was Claude Helvetius.

最伟大的功利主义者之一是克劳德·爱尔维修。

2)表示“(物体、建筑等)实用的”,英文解释为“Utilitarian objects and buildings are designed to be useful rather than attractive.举个🌰:

His office is utilitarian and unglamorous. 

他的办公室实用而素淡。

3)表示“功利主义的”,英文解释为“Utilitarian means based on the idea that the morally correct course of action is the one that produces benefit for the greatest number of people.举个🌰:

It was Tom who was the best publicist for utilitarian ideas.

汤姆才是功利主义思想的最佳宣传家。

 

 

It seems Le Pain Quotidien is currently employing both of these types of pricing—which might be why I get so discombobulated. As lunch is a matter of the stomach, round prices would probably make their menu less of a numerical challenge. And according to other studies, restaurant consumers associate higher quality with whole dollar amounts and disproportionately prefer them. The difference between $12.75 and $13.00 might not mean much to some customers, but to me—and maybe the rest of the huge lunch crowd—round prices might make for a happier, and less stressful, meal.

看来Le Pain Quotidien目前同时采用了这两种定价方式--这可能就是我为什么会如此困惑的原因。由于午餐关系到肚子的问题,整数价格可能会使他们菜单上的数字不那么让人抵触。而根据其他研究,餐厅的消费者会把整数价格和品质更好联系在一起,并且更喜欢它们。12.75美元和13.00美元之间的差异对一些顾客来说可能并不意味着什么,但对我--也许还有其他庞大的午餐人群--来说,整数价格可能会让他们吃得更开心,压力更小。

 

employ

熟词僻义,表示“使用,利用”,英文解释为“If you employ certain methods, materials, or expressions, you use them.举个🌰:

The group will employ a mix of tactics to achieve its aim. 

该团体将运用混合策略来实现其目标。

 

discombobulate

 

discombobulate /ˌdɪskəmˈbɒbjʊˌleɪt/ 表示“使困惑,扰乱,打乱”,英文解释为“to confuse someone or make someone feel uncomfortable”

 

disproportionately

表示“不成比例地;不相称;太大(或太小)”,英文解释为“too large or too small when compared with sth else”举个🌰:

The lower-paid spend a disproportionately large amount of their earnings on food.

低工资者将收入花在食物上的比例很大。

via LearnAndRecord