这类题在设题时常会用到title，subject，main idea，topic，theme等词。1、归纳标题题特点：短小精悍，一般多为一个短语；涵盖性强，一般能覆盖全文意思；精确性强，表达范围要恰当，不能随意改变语意程度或色彩。常见命题形式有：What’s the best title for the text?The best title for this passage is ___.Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?★真题范例：Why is pink or purple a color for girls and blue or brown for boys?The answer depends largely on cultural values as well as personal experiences. To the Egyptians, green was a color that represented the hope and joy of spring, while for Muslims, it means heaven. Red is a symbol of good luck in many cultures. In China, children are given money in a red envelope to bring good fortune in the New Year. For many nations, blue is a symbol of protection and religious beliefs. Greek people often wear a blue necklace hoping to protect themselves against evils (灾祸).People's choice of colors is also influenced by their bodies' reactions (反应) toward them. Green is said to be the most restful color. It has the ability to reduce pain and relax people both mentally and physically. People who work in green environment have been found to have fewer stomach aches.Red can cause a person's blood pressure to rise and increase people's appetites (食欲). Many decorators will include different shades of red in the restaurant. Similarly, many commercial websites will have a red "Buy Now" button because red is a color that easily catches a person's eye.Blue is another calming color. Unlike red, blue can cause people to lose appetite. So if you want to eat less, some suggest that eating from blue plates can help.The next time you are deciding on what to wear or what color to decorate your room, think about the color carefully.63. Which of the following would be the most proper title for the text?A. Colors and Human BeingsB. The Cultural Meaning of ColorC. Colors and Personal ExperiencesD. The Meaning and Function of Color答案：D2、概括大意题包括寻找段落大意（topic）和文章中心思想（main idea），常见命题形式有：What is the general/main idea of the passage？Which of the following expresses the main idea？What is the subject discussed in the text?The writer of the story wants to tell us that_____. The passage/ text is mainly about_____. What’s the article mainly about ？★真题范例：Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.Q: What is the main idea of the passage? A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer.B. Bingham is a diligent student.C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education.D. A good lawyer needs good education.答案：C
阅读理解文章多是议论文和说明文，这两种文体的结构可归纳为：提出问题——论述问题——得出结论或者阐明观点。对于这类文章，抓主题句是快速掌握文章大意的主要方法。主题句一般出现在文章的开头或结尾。主题句具有简洁性、概括性的特点。主题句在文章中的位置主要有以下几种情况。 位于段首：一般而言，以演绎法撰写的文章，主题句往往在文章的开头，即先点出主题，然后围绕这一主题作具体的陈述。判断第一句是否为主题句，可具体分析段落的首句与第二，三句的关系；如果从第二句就开始对第一句进行说明，论述或描述，那第一句就是主题句。有些段落，在主题句后面有明显引出细节的信号词，如for example, an example of; first, second, next, last, finally; to begin with, also, besides; one, the other; some, others等。在阅读中应尽量利用上述信号词来确定主题句的位置。位于段尾：有些文章会在开头列举事实, 然后通过论证阐述作者的核心论点。因此，如果第一句话不是概括性的或综合性的话，最好快速读一读段落的最后一个句子，看看它是否具备主题句的特征。如果它具备主題句的特征，段落的主题思想就很容易确定了。一般说来，当一种观点不易向人解释清楚或不易被人接受时，主题句便会到段落的末尾才出现。学生可以充分利用引出结论的信号词。如so，therefore，thus，consequently；in conclusion，in short；in a word, to sum up等来确定主题句的位置在段尾。当无明显的此类信号时，学生可在段落的最后一句话前面添加一个引出结论的信号词，以确定其是否是主题句。位于段中：有时段落是先介绍背景和细节，接着用一句综合或概括性的话概括前面所说的内容或事例，然后再围绕主题展开对有关问题的深入讨论。这种文章的主题句往往会在段落中间出现。归纳起来主要有两种情况：先提出问题，然后给予回答(主题句)，最后给予解释；或者，先提出问题，然后点出主题思想(主题句)，最后给予解释。首尾呼应：主题句在段落的开头和结尾两个位置上先后出现，形成前呼后应的格局。这两个主题句叙说的是同一个内容，但用词不尽相同，这样不但强调了主题思想，而且显得灵活多变。这两个句子并非简单重复，后一个主题句或对该主题作最后的评述，或对要点作一概括，或使之引申留给读者去思考。无明确主题句：找关键词（出现频率较高）, 归纳总结。
考查内容主要涉及时间、地点、人物、事件、原因、结果、数字等议论文中例证细节和定义类细节。这类题目的共同特点是：答案一般都能在文章中找到。当然，答案并不一定是文章中的原句，考生需要根据文章提供的信息自己组织语句回答问题。1、事实细节题→寻读法分为直接理解题和间接理解题，前者常用who, what, which, when, where, why和how提问，或判断正误；后者需与原文信息转换，表达上与原文有差异。常见命题形式有：What can we learn from the passage?All the following are mentioned exceptWhich of the following is mentioned (not mentioned)?Which of the following statements is true/right/false/wrong about…?★真题范例：(2012江西卷) ……… Mark had been scolded before for touching his father’s equipment. But his curiosity was difficult to control and this new computer really puzzled him. ………56．Why did Mark touch the computer against his father’s warning?A．He wanted to take a voyage.B．He wanted to practice his skillC．He was so much attracted by it.D．He was eager to do an experiment.答案：C2、排列顺序题→首尾定位法找出第一个事件和最后一个事件，用排除法缩小范围。常出现在记叙文和说明文中，一般按事件发生的顺序。常见命题形式有：Which of the following is the correct order of…? Which of the following shows the path of signals described in Paragraph…?★真题范例：（2011山东卷） Since the 1970s, scientists have been searching for ways to link the brain with computers. Brain-computer interface(BCI) technology could help people with disabilities send commands to machines. ……. The researchers designed a special cap for the user. This head cover picks up the signals from the scalp(头皮) and sends them to a computer. The computer interprets the signals and commands the motorized wheelchair. The wheelchair also has two cameras that identify objects in its path. They help the computer react to commands from the brain. ……..73. Which of the following shows the path of the signals described in Paragraph 5?A. scalp→computer→cap→wheelchairB. computer→cap→scalp→wheelchairC. scalp→cap→computer→wheelchairD. cap→computer→scalp→wheelchair答案：C3、图文匹配题→按图索骥理清线索设题形式：给出图表，根据图表提问问题。4、数字计算题→（方法：审题→带着问题找细节→对比、分析、计算）可直接找到相关细节，但需经过计算方可找到答案。
主要考查学生对文章中隐含或深层的含意的理解能力。它要求考生根据文章内容做出合乎逻辑的推断，包括考生对作者观点的理解，态度的判断，对修辞、语气、隐含意思等的理解。题干关键词：infer(推断)，indicate(象征，暗示)，imply/suggest(暗示)，conclude(作出结论)，assume(假定，设想)。1、细节推理判断题一般可根据短文提供的信息或借助生活常识进行推理判断，常见命题形式有：It can be inferred/ concluded from the text that __________.The author implies/ suggests that_____.We may infer that _________.Which of the following statements is implied but NOT stated?★真题范例：（2012天津卷） ……. Some eyes rolled and there were a few low groans(嘟囔声)when Ms.Yates was about to speak. Many started looking at their watches and coming up with excuses to be anywhere instead of preparing to listen to a lecture from and old woman who had few kind words for her students and made them work harder than all the other teachers combined. ……..42. What can be inferred from Paragraph 2?A. Some graduates were too busy to listen to Ms. Yates’ speech.B. Many graduates disliked Ms. Yates’ ways of teaching.C. Some people got tired from the reunion activities.D. Most people had little interest in the reunion.答案：B2、预测推理判断题根据语篇对文章接下来的内容或可能的结局进行猜测，常见命题形式有：What do you think will happen if/when…?At the end of this passage, the writer might continue to write_____3、推测文章来源或读者对象常见命题形式有：The passage is probably take out of_____The passage would most likely be found in_____Where does this text probably come from?4、写作意图、目的、态度推断题作者的语气态度往往不会直接写在文章里，只能通过细读文章，从作者的选词及其修饰手段中体会出来。询问写作目的的题，选项里常出现的词是：explain(解释)，prove (证明)，persuade(劝说)，advise(劝告)，comment(评论)，praise(赞扬)，criticize(批评)，entertain(娱乐)，demonstrate(举例说明)，argue(辩论)，tell(讲述)，analyze(分析)等。
选项里常出现的词是：neutral(中立的)，sympathetic(同情的)，satisfied(满意的)，friendly(友好的)，enthusiastic(热情的)，subjective(主观的)，objective(客观的)，matter-of-fact(实事求是的)，pessimistic(悲观的)，optimistic(乐观的)，critical(批评的)，doubtful(怀疑的)，hostile(敌对的)，indifferent(冷淡的)，disappointed(失望的)。常见命题形式有：The purpose of the text is_____What is the main purpose of the author writing the text? By mentioning…, the author aims to show that_____What is the author’s attitude towards…?What is the author’s opinion on…?The author’s tone in this passage is _____.
考点：1、猜测某个词、词组、句子的意义；2、对文中的多义词或词组进行定义；3、判断某个代词的指代的对象。常见命题形式有：The underlined word/phrase in the second paragraph means _____.The word “it/they” in the last sentence refers to______.The word “…”（Line 6. para.2）probably means ______.The word “…”（Line 6. para.2）could best be replaced by which of the following?Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “…” ?
1、通过因果关系猜词通过因果关系猜词首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系，然后才能猜词。有时文章借助关联词(如because，as，since，for，so，thus，as a result，of course，therefore等等)表示前因后果。例如：You shouldn't have blamed him for that，for it wasn't his fault. 通过for引出的句子所表示的原因(那不是他的错)，可猜出blame的词义是"责备"。2、通过同义词和反义词的关系猜词通过同义词猜词，一是要看由and或or连接的同义词词组，如happy and gay，即使我们不认识gay这个词，也可以知道它是愉快的意思；二是看在进一步解释的过程中使用的同义词，如Man has known something about the planets Venus，Mars，and Jupiter with the help of spaceships. 此句中的Venus(金星)、Mars(火星)、Jupiter(木星)均为生词，但只要知道planets就可猜出这几个词都属于"行星"这一义域。通过反义词猜词，一是看表转折关系的连词或副词，如but，while，however等；二是看与not搭配的或表示否定意义的词语，如：He is so homely，not at all as handsome as his brother.根据not at all...handsome我们不难推测出homely的意思，即不英俊、不漂亮的意思。3、通过构词法猜词根据前缀、后缀、复合、派生等构词知识判断生词词义。如：She is unlikely to have stolen the money. ( “un”含否定意义，故为“不太可能”之意。)4、通过定义或释义关系来推测词义例如：But sometimes，no rain falls for a long，long time. Then there is a dry period，or drought. 从drought所在句子的上文我们得知很久不下雨，于是便有一段干旱的时期，即drought，由此可见drought意思为"久旱"，"旱灾"。而a dry period和drought是同义语。这种同义或释义关系常由is，or，that is，in other words，be called或破折号等来表示。5、通过句法功能来推测词义例如：Bananas，oranges，pineapples，coconuts and some other kind of fruit grow in warm areas.假如pineapples和coconuts是生词，我们可以从这两个词在句中所处的位置来判断它们大致的意思。从句中不难看出pineapples，coconuts和bananas，oranges是同类关系，同属fruit类，因此它们是两样水果，准确地说，是菠萝和椰子。6、通过描述猜词描述即作者对该人或该物作出的外在相貌或内在特征的描写。例如：The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the South Pole. It is fat and walks in a funny way. Although it cannot fly，it can swim in the icy water to catch the fish.从例句的描述中可以得知penguin是一种生活在南极的鸟类。后面更详尽地描述了该鸟类的生活习性。7、根据常识猜词如：The door was so low that he hit his head on the lintel.（lintel “过梁”。）Afraid of waking the baby up, she tiptoed out of the room.（tiptoed “踮着脚走，蹑手蹑脚”）阅读推荐阅读理解：细节理解题解题技巧（6）英语阅读理解：细节理解解题技巧阅读理解：细节理解题解题技