2018年全国1卷阅读理解+全文翻译

A
Washington,  D.C. Bicycle Tours
Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington,  D.C.
Duration:3 hours
This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see the world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington,  D.C. Your guide will provide a history lesson about the trees and the famous monuments where they blossom. Reserve your spot before availability — and the cherry blossoms — disappear!
 Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour
Duration:3 hours(4 miles)
Join a guided bike tour and view some of the most popular monuments in Washington,  D.C. Explore the monuments and memorials on the National Mall as your guide shares unique facts and history at each stop. Guided tour includes bike,  helmet,  cookies and bottled water.
Capital City Bike Tour in Washington,  D.C.
Duration:3 hours
Morning or Afternoon,  this bike tour is the perfect tour for D.C. newcomers and locals looking to experience Washington,  D.C. in a healthy way with minimum effort. Knowledgeable guides will entertain you with the most interesting stories about Presidents,  Congress,  memorials,  and parks. Comfortable bikes and a smooth tour route(路线) make cycling between the sites fun and relaxing.
Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour
Duration:3 hours(7 miles)
Join a small group bike tour for an evening of exploration in the heart of Washington,  D.C. Get up close to the monuments and memorials as you bike the sites of Capitol Hill and the National Mall. Frequent stops are made for photo taking as your guide offers unique facts and history. Tour includes bike, helmet, and bottled water. All riders are equipped with reflective vests and safety lights.
21.Which tour do you need to book in advance?
A. Cherry Blossom Bike Tour in Washington,  D.C.
B. Washington Capital Monuments Bicycle Tour.
C. Capital City Bike Tour in Washington,  D.C.
D. Washington Capital Sites at Night Bicycle Tour.
22.What will you do on the Capital City Bike Tour?
A. Meet famous people.
B. Go to a national park.
C. Visit well-known museums.
D. Enjoy interesting stories.
23.Which of the following does the bicycle tour at night provide?
A. City maps.
B. Cameras.
C. Meals.
D. Safety lights.

A

华盛顿特区的自行车之旅

华盛顿特区的樱花自行车之旅

持续时间:3小时

这个小团体自行车旅行是观看华盛顿特区世界上有名的樱花树的一种奇妙的方式,这些树能开出美丽的花朵。你的导游会上一堂有关这些树以及有樱花树开花的名胜古迹的历史课。在能看之前预订你的位置——樱花树一开花——很快就凋谢了!

华盛顿首都纪念馆自行车之旅

持续时间:3小时(4英里)

参加一次有导游的自行车旅行,并且参观华盛顿特区的一些最受欢迎的纪念馆。当你的导游在每一站分享独特的事实和历史时,你可以在国家广场上探寻纪念馆和纪念碑。这场有导游的旅行包括自行车、头盔、饼干和瓶装水。

华盛顿特区的首都自行车之旅

持续时间:3小时

不管是上午还是下午,对刚来华盛顿特区的人和当地人来说,想要以健康的、最不费力的方式来体验华盛顿风土人情的话,这场自行车之旅是完美的旅行。知识渊博的导游会讲有关总统们、国会、纪念碑和公园的最有趣的故事。舒适的自行车和流畅的旅游路线使得在景点之间的骑行变得有趣和轻松。

华盛顿首都景点夜间自行车之旅

持续时间:3小时(7英里)

加入一个小团体自行车旅行之中,在华盛顿市中心进行一次夜间探险。当你骑自行车游览国会山和国家广场时,靠近这些纪念馆和纪念碑。当你的导游讲解独特的事实和历史的时候,你可以经常停下来拍照。这场旅行包括自行车、头盔和瓶装水。所有骑自行车的人都配有反光背心和安全灯。

B

Good Morning Britains Susanna Reid is used to grilling guests on the sofa every morning,  but she is cooking up a storm in her latest role — showing families how to prepare delicious and nutritious meals on a tight budget.

In Save Money: Good Food,  she visits a different home each week and with the help of chef Matt Tebbutt offers top tips on how to reduce food waste,  while preparing recipes for under 5 per family a day. And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s learnt into practice in her own home,  preparing meals for sons,  Sam,  14,  Finn,  13,  and Jack,  11.

"We love Mexican churros,  so I buy them on my phone from my local Mexican takeaway restaurant, " she explains."I pay 5 for a portion(一份), but Matt makes them for 26p a portion,  because they are flour,  water,  sugar and oil. Everybody can buy takeaway food,  but sometimes we’re not aware how cheaply we can make this food ourselves."

The eight-part series(系列节目), Save Money: Good Food,  follows in the footsteps of ITV’s Save Money: Good Health,  which gave viewers advice on how to get value from the vast range of health products on the market.

With food our biggest weekly household expense, Susanna and Matt spend time with a different family each week. In tonight’s special they come to the aid of a family in need of some delicious inspiration on a budget. The team transforms the family’s long weekend of celebration with less expensive but still tasty recipes.

24.What do we know about Susanna Reid?

A. She enjoys embarrassing her guests.

B. She has started a new programme.

C. She dislikes working early in the morning.

D. She has had a tight budget for her family.

25.How does Matt Tebbutt help Susanna?

A. He buys cooking materials for her.

B. He prepares food for her kids.

C. He assists her in cooking matters.

D. He invites guest families for her.

26.What does the author intend to do in paragraph 4?

A. Summarize the previous paragraphs.

B. Provide some advice for the readers.

C. Add some background information.

D. Introduce a new topic for discussion.

27.What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. Keeping Fit by Eating Smart

B. Balancing Our Daily Diet

C. Making Yourself a Perfect Chef

D. Cooking Well for Less

B

“早安英国”节目中的Susanna Reid习惯每天早上坐在沙发上追问嘉宾,但是她准备在最新的角色中烹饪一手好菜——为家庭展示如何在预算紧张的情况下准备美味且营养的食物。

在“省钱:美食”节目中,她每周都会拜访一个不同的家庭,并在主厨Matt Tebbutt的帮助下提供如何减少食物浪费的最佳建议,同时一天为每个家庭准备花销在5英镑以下的食谱。而且这位“早安英国”的主持人说,她能够在自己家里将她所学到的许多东西运用到实践中,为儿子们,14岁的Sam13岁的Finn11岁的Jack,准备饭菜。

“我们喜欢墨西哥油炸饼,所以我就在手机上从本地墨西哥外卖餐馆买。”她解释道。“我买一份花5英镑,但是Matt制作一份花26便士,因为它们是面粉、水、糖和油。每个人都可以买外卖食物,但有时我们没有意识到我们自己动手做食物的话会有多便宜。”

“省钱:美食”,这个含有八个部分的系列节目,效仿了独立电视台的“省钱:健康”节目,该节目就如何从市场上的各种保健产品中获得益处为观众提供建议。

食物是我们每周最大的家庭开销,SusannaMatt每周都会花时间和不同的家庭在一起。在今晚的复活节特别节目中,他们会来帮助一个需要在省钱的情况下获得一些美味灵感的家庭。这个团队用更便宜却仍然美味的食谱改变了这个家庭漫长的周末庆祝方式。

C

Languages have been coming and going for thousands of years,  but in recent times there has been less coming and a lot more going. When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,  small,  tightly knit(联系) groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other. Some language experts believe that 10, 000 years ago,  when the world had just five to ten million people,  they spoke perhaps 12, 000 languages between them.

Soon afterwards,  many of those people started settling down to become farmers,  and their languages too became more settled and fewer in number. In recent centuries,  trade,  industrialisation,  the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education,  especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades,  all have caused many languages to disappear,  and dominant languages such as English,  Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

At present,  the world has about 6, 800 languages. The distribution of these languages is hugely uneven. The general rule is that mild zones have relatively few languages,  often spoken by many people,  while hot, wet zones have lots,  often spoken by small numbers. Europe has only around 200 languages; the Americas about 1, 000; Africa 2, 400; and Asia and the Pacific perhaps 3, 200,  of which Papua New Guinea alone accounts for well over 800. The median number(中位数) of speakers is a mere 6, 000,  which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that.

Already well over 400 of the total of 6, 800 languages are close to extinction (消亡),  with only a few elderly speakers left. Pick,  at random,  Busuu in Cameroon (eight remaining speakers),  Chiapaneco in Mexico (150), Lipan Apache in the United States (two or three) or Wadjigu in Australia(one,  with a question-mark): none of these seems to have much chance of survival.

28.What can we infer about languages in hunter-gatherer times?

A. They developed very fast.

B. They were large in number.

C. They had similar patterns.

D. They were closely connected.

29.Which of the following best explains "dominant" underlined in paragraph 2?

A. Complex. 

B. Advanced.

C. Powerful.

D. Modern.

30.How many languages are spoken by less than 6, 000 people at present?

A. About 6, 800. 

B. About 3, 400.

C. About 2, 400. 

D. About 1, 200.

31.What is the main idea of the text?

A. New languages will be created.

B. People’s lifestyles are reflected in languages.

C. Human development results in fewer languages.

D. Geography determines language evolution.

C

语言在数千年的时间里不断出现又消失,但是最近出现的语言少了,而消失的语言却增加了。当世界上仍然住着采集狩猎者时,紧密联系的小团体发展了彼此独立的属于自己的语言形式。一些语言学家认为一万年前,当世界上只有五百万到一千万人口时,他们之间可能会说12 000种语言。

不久之后,这些人中的许多人开始定居下来,成为农民,而他们的语言也变得更加稳定,数量也越来越少。近几个世纪以来,贸易、工业化、单一民族独立国家的发展和全民义务教育的普及,尤其是过去几十年来的全球化和通讯方式的改良,所有这些因素导致了许多语言消失,而主要的语言,如英语、西班牙语和汉语,逐渐取得了主导地位。

目前,世界上约有6 800种语言,这些语言的分布极不均衡。一般规律是,温和地带的语言相对较少,经常有很多人使用,而炎热、潮湿的地区有很多语言,经常有少数人使用。欧洲大约只有200种语言;美洲大约有1 000种;非洲有2 400种;亚洲和太平洋地区大概有3 200种,其中仅巴布亚新几内亚就占了八百多种。讲某种语言的人的中位数只有6 000人,这意味着世界上有一半的语言被比其还少的人说。

在总共6 800种语言中,已经有四百多种濒临灭绝,只剩下少数几个说该语言的老年人。随机挑选喀麦隆的Busuu(剩余8位说该语言的人)、墨西哥的Chiapaneco150人)、美国的Lipan Apache23个人)或澳大利亚的Wadjigu1人,有疑问):这些之中似乎没有一个有太大的生存几率。

D

We may think we’re a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new,  but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style. That’s bad news for the environment — and our wallets — as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things.

To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life — from when its minerals are mined to when we stop using the device.This method provided a readout for how home energy use has evolved since the early 1990s. Devices were grouped by generation. Desktop computers,  basic mobile phones,  and box-set TVs defined 1992. Digital cameras arrived on the scene in 1997. And MP3 players,  smart phones,  and LCD TVs entered homes in 2002,  before tablets and e-readers showed up in 2007.

As we accumulated more devices, however, we didn’t throw out our old ones. "The living-room television is replaced and gets planted in the kids’room,  and suddenly one day,  you have a TV in every room of the house, " said one researcher. The average number of electronic devices rose from four per household in 1992 to 13 in 2007. We’re not just keeping these old devices — we continue to use them. According to the analysis of Babbitt’s team,  old desktop monitors and box TVs with cathode ray tubes are the worst devices with their energy consumption and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions(排放) more than doubling during the 1992 to 2007 window.

So what’s the solution(解决方案)? The team’s data only went up to 2007,  but the researchers also explored what would happen if consumers replaced old products with new electronics that serve more than one function, such as a tablet for word processing and TV viewing. They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%.

32.What does the author think of new devices?

A. They are environment-friendly.

B. They are no better than the old.

C. They cost more to use at home.

D. They go out of style quickly.

33.Why did Babbitt’s team conduct the research?

A. To reduce the cost of minerals.

B. To test the life cycle of a product.

C. To update consumers on new technology.

D. To find out electricity consumption of the devices.

34.Which of the following uses the least energy?

A. The box-set TV.

B. The tablet.

C. The LCD TV.

D. The desktop computer.

35.What does the text suggest people do about old electronic devices?

A. Stop using them.

B. Take them apart.

C. Upgrade them.

D. Recycle them.

D

我们可能认为我们习惯于一看到某种光鲜崭新的事物,就抛弃我们的旧技术,但一项新的研究表明,当我们的旧设备过时之后,我们会继续使用它们。那对环境——和我们的钱包——来说是一个坏消息——因为这些过时的设备比做同样事情的新设备消耗更多的能量。

为了弄清楚这些设备使用了多少能量,纽约罗彻斯特理工学院的Callie Babbitt和她的同事追踪了每种产品整个生命周期的环境成本——从它的矿物质被开采出来到停止使用这个设备。这种方法提供了一个数据,显示了自20世纪90年代早期以来家庭消耗的能量是如何演变的。设备按照代分组。台式电脑、基本的移动电话和盒式电视机是1992年社会的特征。1997年数码相机问世。在2007年平板电脑和电子阅读器出现之前,MP3播放器、智能手机和液晶电视在2002年进入了家庭。

然而,当我们积累了更多的设备,我们并没有扔掉我们的旧设备。“起居室里的电视机被换掉了,安在了孩子们的房间里。而且突然有一天,你家里每个房间都有一台电视机。”一位研究人员说道。电子设备的平均数量从1992年每户4台到2007年上升到了13台。我们不只是保留这些旧设备——我们还继续使用它们。根据Babbitt团队的分析,旧的桌面显示器和带有阴极射线管的盒式电视机是最差的设备,在1992年至2007年期间,这些设备的能量消耗和对温室气体排放的贡献增加了一倍多。

那么解决方案是什么呢?该团队的数据只持续到2007年,但研究人员还探讨了如果消费者们用新电子产品取代旧产品会发生什么,这些新产品不止有一个功能,比如用于文字处理和观看电视的平板电脑。他们发现在平板电脑上看更多的点播娱乐节目,而不是用电视机和台式电脑,可以减少44%的能量消耗。