Unit 1 The changing world变化中的世界
Topic 1 Our country has developed rapidly我国发展迅速
1a：（After a long holiday, Kangkang is happy to see his friends.）
Hi, Jane! Did you have a good summer holiday?你好，简，你暑假过得愉快吗？
Yes. What about you?是的，你呢？
Not bad. Rita, you have just come back from your hometown. How was your trip?不错。丽塔，你刚从家乡回来，你的旅行怎么样？
Great! I went to many places near my home in India. Great changes have taken place there and my hometown has become more and more beautiful. Where have you been, Jane? 好极了！在印度，我去了我家附近的很多地方。那里发生了很大的变化，而且我的家乡变得越来越美丽了。简，你去哪里了？
I have been to Mount Huang with my parents. It's a beautiful place. But there were so many people that I couldn't find a good place to take photos. And where have you been, Kangkang ? 我和我的父母去过黄山，那是一个美丽的地方。但是那里人太多了，我都找不到一个好的地方拍照。康康，那你去哪里了？
I have been to an English summer school to improve my English. By the way, where's Maria? 为了提高我的英语水平，我去了一所英语暑期学校。顺便问一下，玛丽亚在哪里？
She has gone to Cuba to be a volunteer and she will be back tomorrow. Listen! There goes the bell.她去古巴当志愿者去了，明天将会回来。听！上课铃声响了。
1a：Hi, Maria! I haven’t seen you for a long time. You took part in some volunteer activities during summer holidays, didn't you? 你好，玛丽亚！好久没见到你了。你在暑假期间参加了一些志愿者活动，是不是？
Yes. I was a volunteer in a disabled children’s home. 是的。我在一所残疾儿童养育院做志愿者。
Cool! Did you clean rooms for the disabled children? 真棒！你给那些残疾儿童打扫房间了吗？
Yes, I did. 是的，打扫了。
Did you feed them? 你给他们喂饭了吗？
No, I didn't. But I cooked for them.不，没有。但我为他们做了饭。
What a wonderful experience! 多精彩的一次经历啊!
Yes, it really was. I've learnt a lot from it. I think it makes me happy to help others. 是的，确实是这样。我从中学会了很多东西。我认为帮助别人使我很开心。
How interesting! Have you been to any other place? 多么有趣啊！你去过其他地方吗？
No, I haven’t. Though I had no time to travel, I still felt very happy. What about you? 不，没有。尽管我没有时间去旅行，但是我仍然感到很开心。你呢？
You’re so kind. I have been to an English summer school. I made some new friends there. We also put on funny shows for a group of old people in a community. 你太好了。我去了一个英语暑期学校。我在那里交了一些新朋友。我们还在一个社区给一群老年人表演了有趣的节目。
Great! To help others makes us happy.太棒了！帮助别人使我们开心。
Changes in Beijing
I'm Kangkang. For this report I have interviewed my grand-mother. She has lived in Beijing for more than forty years. She has seen the changes in Beijing herself.
In the 1960s, the living conditions in the city were poor. The roads were narrow and there weren't many ring roads. Big families were crowded into small houses. Many families couldn't get enough food. Few children had the chance to receive a good education. People had little money to see a doctor. And there were few hospitals. People kept in touch with their friends and relatives far away mainly by letter or telegram.
China has developed rapidly since the reform and opening-up. More and more ring roads and subways have appeared and buildings in Beijing are becoming taller and brighter. People's living conditions have improved a lot. And there are more kinds of food and clothes to choose to satisfy people’s needs. Children can study not only in modern schools but also on the Internet. People can enjoy good medical care. What's more, communications are becoming easier and quicker--people can use telephones, cellphones, fax machines and the internet.
Beijing has made rapid progress and it has already succeeded in hosting the 2008 Olympic Games. I think it is important to remember the past, live in the present and dream about the future.
Present Perfect (1) 现在完成时(1)
1.I have been to Mount Huang with my parents.我和我的父母去过黄山.
2.She has gone to Cuba to be a volunteer.她去古巴当志愿者去，明天将会回来。
3. China has developed rapidly since the reform and opening-up. 自从改革开放以来，中国发展迅速。
4. It has already succeeded in hosting the 2008 Olympic Games. 它已经成功地举办了2008年的奥运会。
5. Great changes have taken place…那里发生了很大变化。
6.I haven’t seen you for a long time.我很久没见到你了。
7. Have you been to any other place? 你曾经去过其他的地方吗？Yes, I have./No, I haven’t 是的，去过。/不，没有。
1.Listen! There goes the bell.听！上课铃声响了。
2. What a wonderful experience! 多精彩的一次经历啊!
3. Though I had no time to travel, I still felt very happy. 尽管我没有时间去旅行，我仍然感到很高兴。
4. To help others makes us happy. 帮助别人使我们很快乐。
5. I think it is important to remember the past, live in the present and dream about the future. 我认为记住过去、立足现在、展望未来非常重要。
Topic 2The population in developing countries is growing faster.
1a：Hello, Michael. I have just called you, but you weren’t in. where have you been?你好，迈克尔。我刚刚给你打了电话，但你不在，你去哪里了？
I have just been to a shopping center with Kangkang. I’ve never been there before, but I don’t want to go there any more.刚才我和康康去购物中心了，我以前从未去过那儿，但我再也不想去那儿了。
Because there were too many people. We got lost and couldn’t find each other. 因为那儿人太多。我们走散了，找不到对方。
Bad luck! Have you found him yet? 真倒霉！你已经找到他了吗？
No, he has probably gone home. Let’s call him up now. I really hate going to a place like that. 没有，他可能已经回家了，我们现在给他打个电话吧。我真的讨厌去那样的地方。
So do I. 我也一样。
(Kangkang is reading a report on population in the newspaper.)
Wow! What a large population! 哇！多么庞大的人口啊！
Look, it says the world has a population of 6.8 billion. And it is increasing by 80 million every year.看！报纸上说世界人口已经达到68亿了，并且正以每年8000万的速度增长。
Mmm, that's really a lot. Which country has the largest population?嗯，真的太多了。哪个国家人口最多呀？
China has the largest population. It has already reached 1.3 billion, and India is second with 1.1 billion.中国人口最多，已经达到了13亿，印度第二，有11亿。
What's the population of the USA?美国有多少人口？
Oh, I see. It shows that the population in developing countries is larger than that in developed countries, doesn't it? 噢，我明白了。它表明发展中国家人口比发达国家人口多，不是吗？
Yes. What's more, the population in developing countries is growing faster.是的。并且，发展中国家人口增长更快！
So it is. The population problem is more serious in developing countries.是这样。人口问题在发展中国家更严峻。
Luckily, China has already carried out the one-child policy to control the population.幸运的是，中国已经实行了独生子女政策来控制人口增长。
In 2010, the world's population was about 6.8 billion. More than three billion people live in Asia now. That's almost half of the world's population.
China has the largest population in the world, and about one fifth of the people in the world live in China. Because of the large population, there is less living space for each family. And it is difficult for lots of people to find jobs. At the same time, the large population has caused many other difficulties for the whole nation. For example, it is hard for China to supply energy and the traffic is much heavier. Natural environment are becoming worse and worse. The large population has been a serious problem.
So far, our government has taken many measures to control the population. One is known as the one-child policy. It has worked will in controlling China's population. Thanks to the policy, China is developing quickly and people's living conditions are improving rapidly. However, the population problem is still serious in China. We still have a long way to go.
Present Perfect (Ⅱ) 现在完成时(Ⅱ)
1.I have just called you.我刚刚给你打过电话。
2.I’ve never been there before.我以前从未去过那里。
3.China has already carried out the one-child policy to control the population. 中国已经实施了独生子女政策来控制人口增长。
4. Have you found him yet? 你已经找到他了吗？
1. I really hate going to a place like that.我真的讨厌去那样的地方。
2. So do I. 我也一样。
3. It shows that the population in developing countries is larger than that in developed countries, doesn't it?它表明发展中国家人口比发达国家人口多，不是吗？
4. China has the largest population in the world, and about one fifth of the people in the world live in China. 中国是世界上人口最多的国家，世界上大约五分之一的人居住在中国。
5. Thanks to the policy, China is developing quickly and people's living conditions are improving rapidly. 多亏了这项政策，中国正在迅速发展，人们的生活条件也在迅速改善。
Topic 3The world has changed for the better
1a：(Helen and Bob are talking on the phone)（海伦和鲍勃正在打电话。）
You have been in new York for a long time. How do you like living there?你在纽约很时间了。你觉得住在那儿怎么样？
It’s great. I really love it. 好极了，我真的很喜欢。
But I heard that the local traffic was terrible and almost everyone drove too fast.但我听说当地的交通很糟糕，而且几乎每个人都开车太快。
Oh, you will get used to it very soon if you come. 噢，如果你来，你很快就会习惯的。
I also heard the streets were dirty. 我还听说街道很脏。
They used to be, but the city has improved a lot since I came here a few years ago. 过去是这样，但自从几年前我来到这儿之后，城市（面貌）已经改善了很多。
Isn’t it dangerous to live there? 难道住在那儿不危险吗？
Well, it was in the past, but it’s quite safe now. As a matter of fact, it’s a wonderful place to live. Near our block, there are beautiful parks, good schools, famous museums and excellent restaurants. And you can go to plays, concerts and operas every day if you like. You must come for a visit. Then you can see new York yourself. 噢，过去很危险，但现在很安全。事实上那是一个极好的居住地。在我们街区附近有美丽的公园，好的学校，著名的博物馆和豪华的饭店。如果你喜欢，你可以每天去看戏剧、欣赏音乐会和歌剧。你一定要来纽约参观，那样你可以亲自看一看纽约。
1a：What are you reading, Jane? 简，你在看什么?
I’m reading a newspaper from Canada. Martin showed me an interesting article. It is about a program that helps homeless people.我在看一份加拿大的报纸，马丁介绍了一篇很有趣的文章。它是关于救助无家可归的人的一个计划。
Are there homeless people in Canada? 加拿大有无家可归的人吗？
Oh, yes. Many countries have homeless people. The article says one city has a wonderful program. Since it started, it has helped hundreds of people return to work and live a normal life.噢，有。许多国家都有无家可归的人。这篇文章中写道有个城市有一个极好的计划。自从计划实施以来，已经帮助数以百计的人重返工作岗位，从而使他们过上正常的生活。
That sounds great! How do they manage it? 听起来好极了！他们是如何做的？
Well, once they find people in need, they decide on suitable ways to offer them help. 噢，他们一旦发现处在困境中的人，就选定适当的方式来给他们提供帮助。
Can the homeless people get enough food, homes and medical treatment? 无家可归的人能够获得充足的食物、住所和医疗吗？
Yes. And it’s not only that. The program also provides them with job training so that they can find jobs again. 是的，还不知这些。这个还向他们提供职业培训，以便他们能再次找到工作。
I think it is important for these people to feel good about themselves.我认为对于这些人来说自信心是很重要的。
You are right. The world has changed for the better. 你说对了。世界已经变得更加美好了。
One of the most basic human needs is a home. A home is a safe place. While most people around the world value their homes, there are many people in every country who are homeless.
Some people are homeless for a short period of time because they are moving from one place to another, and other people are not able to find a home. They must live on the streets or in a shelter.
There are many causes of homelessness. Sometimes people can not keep a home because they do not earn enough money, or because they do not have a job. Sometimes people are homeless because they have a problem with drugs or because they have a mental illness. No one is ever homeless on purpose.
Whatever the cause of homelessness is, the effects are the same. Homeless people must work very hard to live. They can not raise their children. Sometimes they must steal food just to eat. The government in every country has worked for many years to support the homeless but more needs to be done. We must think of the homeless as people, not just as problems.
Present Perfect (Ⅲ) 现在完成时(Ⅲ)
1. You have been in new York for a long time. 你在纽约很时间了。
2.The city has improved a lot since I came here a few years ago. 自从几年前我来到这儿之后，城市（面貌）已经改善了很多。
3. Since it started, it has helped hundreds of people return to work and live a normal life. 自从计划实施以来，已经帮助数以百计的人重返工作岗位，从而使他们过上正常的生活。
1.Oh, you will get used to it very soon if you come. 噢，如果你来，你很快就会习惯的。
2. As a matter of fact, it’s a wonderful place to live. 事实上那是一个极好的居住地。
3. You must come for a visit. 你一定要来参观.
4. Well, once they find people in need, they decide on suitable ways to offer them help. 噢，他们一旦发现处在困境中的人，就选定适当的方式来给他们提供帮助。
5. The program also provides them with job training so that they can find jobs again. 这个还向他们提供职业培训，以便他们能再次找到工作。
Project Hope is an education program to help students. It builds schools in the poorest parts of China and it helps poor families afford an education for their children.
Since Project Hope started in 1989, It has done very well. By 2012, Project Hope had raised 8.73 billion yuan. With this money, it has aided 4.5 million children to go to schools and it has built 18 002 Hope Primary Schools.
Project Hope has made important contributions to both the education and the health of children. For more than 20 years, Project Hope has encourage the moral development and modern thinking of students. As a result, the students in Hope schools respect their teachers, aid the poor, and help one another. Project Hope is the best-known and most successful education program in China. Without Project Hope, there is a risk that many children would have an unhappy future.
Unit 2 Saving the Earth拯救地球
Topic 1 Pollution has caused too many problems.
1a:(Kangkang, Jane, Maria and Michael are planning a picnic for Sunday.)（康康、简、玛丽亚和迈克尔正在为周日计划一次野炊。）
Kangkang, where shall we go ? 康康，我们要去哪儿？
What about the West Hill? I went there two years ago. It was a beautiful place. There were lots of flowers and grass. The air was fresh and the water was clean, and you could see bees and butterflies dancing. 去西山怎么样？我两年前去过那儿。那是是一个漂亮的地方，有许多花草。那里空气新鲜，流水清澈，而且你还能看到蜜蜂和蝴蝶在飞舞。
Sounds great! Let's go there.听起来不错！我们去那儿吧！
(On Sunday, they come to the West Hill.)（星期天，他们来到了西山。）
Oh, What a mess! The flowers and grass have gone! The water is so dirty. It smells terrible. What has happened here? 噢，多么脏乱啊！花和草都没了，水太脏了，难闻极了。这儿发生了什么事？
What a shame! Look, there are several chemical factories pouring waste water into the stream. 多么遗憾啊！看，有几座化工厂正往小溪里排放废水。
Everything has changed. 一切都变样了。
Do you still want to have a picnic here?你们还想在这儿野炊吗？
Of course not.当然不。
1a：(Mrs. Zhou is coughing. She looks weak.)（周太太正在咳嗽，她看起来很虚弱。）
Good morning, Mrs. Zhou. What's wrong with you?早上好，周太太。您怎么了？
Oh, Kangkang. It's difficult for me to breathe. I’ve got a pain my throat. 哦，康康。我呼吸困难。我的喉咙痛。
How long have you been like this? 您像这样多长时间了？
I've been like this since last week. 自从上个星期以来我就一直这样。
Have you seen a doctor? 您看过医生了吗？
Not yet. The chemical factory produces terrible gas. The bad air makes my chest hurt. What's worse, the factory makes too much noise and I can't sleep well at night. 还没有。化工厂难闻的气体。糟糕的空气使我觉得胸疼。更糟糕的是，化工厂制造了太多噪音，我晚上也睡不好觉。
That's too bad.那太糟糕了。
Yes, it is really awful. I'm always in a bad mood because I can't bear the environment here. Anyway, I hope the government will solve this problem soon. By the way, have you noticed the dead fish in the river? 是的，真的太可怕了。我总是心情很差，因为我不能忍受这里的环境了。无论如何，我希望政府能快点儿解决这个问题。顺便问一下，你注意到河里的死鱼了吗？
Oh, yes. Pollution caused too many problems. I think I should write to the newspaper about these problems. But now you'd better go to see a doctor. 噢，是的，污染引发太多问题了。我想我应该把这些问题写信反映给报社，但现在你最好去看医生。
In today’s world, almost everyone knows air pollution is harmful to people’s health. However, not all people know noise is also a kind of pollution and is harmful to humans’ health.
People who work and live in noisy conditions often go deaf. For example, many of the workers who print newspapers and books lose their hearing. Quite a few people living near airports also have hearing loss. Recently, it is reported that many teenagers in America can hear no better than 65-year-old people do, because these young people always listen to loud pop music.
Making a loud noise in public is also a kind of pollution. It not only disturbs others but also does great harm to people’s hearing. Cars and machines also produce too much noise. Such pollution makes people feel uncomfortable and unpleasant, and it can even cause them to become sick or deaf. Nowadays, many countries are trying to solve all sorts of environmental problems, including noise pollution.
Simple Past & Present Perfect一般过去时和现在完成时
1. I went there two years ago.我两年前去过那儿。
2. There were lots of flowers and grass.那儿有许多花草。
3.What has happened here? 那里发生了什么？
4.I have been like this since last week. 我自从上个星期以来就一直这样。
5.The flowers and grass have gone! 花和草都没了。
1.Oh, What a mess!噢，多么脏乱啊！
2. There are several chemical factories pouring waste water into the stream.有几家化工厂正往小溪里排放废水。
3. What's worse, the factory makes too much noise and I can't sleep well at night.更糟糕的是，化工厂制造了太多噪音，我晚上也睡不好觉。
4. Noise is harmful to humans’ health.噪音对人们的健康有害。
5. People who work and live in noisy conditions often go deaf. 在噪音条件下，工作和生活的人经常变聋。
6. …many teenagers in America can hear no better than 65-year-old people do,… …美国许多青少年的听力几乎和65岁的老人一样差,…
7. …does great harm to people’s hearing. …严重损害人们的听力。
Topic 2 All these problems are very serious.
(Kangkang, Maria and Jane are talking in a room. The wind outside is blowing strongly.)(康康、玛利亚和简正在房间里谈话，,外面的风刮得很厉害。)
What bad weather! The wind is so strong! And the sand really hurt my face. while I was walking down the street just now, I couldn't see anything.
I'm sorry to hear that. But what causes these sandstorms? 对此我很难过。但是是什么引起这些沙尘暴的呢?
People have cut down too many trees. As a result, a lot of rich land has changed into desert.
That's bad. How can that affect the weather? 那太糟糕了,但是那怎么影响天气呢?
Trees can stop the wind from blowing the earth away. 树木可以防风固土。
And a lot of water can be saved by forests. 并且森林可以贮存大量的水分。
They can also stop the water from washing the earth away. 树木也能防止水土流失。
Cutting down trees is harmful to human beings, animals and plants. Although we have built "the Green Great Wall", we still need to do something to protect the environment.
Kangkang, read this article. 康康，读这篇文章。
What’s it about? 关于什么的？
It’s about air pollution in China. It says that China has become the world’s largest producer and user of coal. As a result, air pollution has become a serious problem.
Yeah. But the government is doing something useful to protect the environment.
That’s great. None of us likes pollution. 那样很好。没有人喜欢污染。
Yes, We shouldn’t leave rubbish here and there. Don’t spit anywhere in public. Don’t walk on grass or pick flowers. Everyone should care for wild animals and plant more trees.
That’s right. We should do everything we can to protect the environment. 对。我们应尽一切努力保护环境。
The earth is 4.6 billion years old. We humans have lived on the earth for only 35 000 years, but during this period, we have changed our planet a lot in many ways. Some things we have done are very good for the earth while others are bad.
All over the world, people have cut down millions of trees. When it rains or when the wind blows, the earth is taken away. Forests have become deserts, so many kinds of animals and plants are disappearing.
In big cities, cars and buses have polluted the air. Now many people in cities have health problems.
Factories have also polluted the land and the water. As a result, many rivers and lakes are now dead.
Around the earth, there’s a special kind of oxygen called “ozone”(O3). It is important to the earth. But now air pollution is destroying it and making a very big hole in the ozone layer. Too much harmful radiation from the sun passes through the hole and reaches the earth directly. This is very dangerous because this kind of radiation can cause cancer.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air has increased a lot. It mainly comes from burning oil, coal and wood. This has formed a “blanket” around the earth. The heat from the sun can’t escape so the temperature is rising. This is called “the greenhouse effect”. It causes the level of the oceans to rise and the climate of the earth to change.
All these problems are very serious, so we must do something now.
Indefinite Pronoun and Adverb不定代词和副词
1. None of us likes pollution.没有人喜欢污染。
2. Don’t spit anywhere in public. 不要在公共场合随地吐痰。
3. Everyone should care for wild animals and plant more trees. 每个人都应当保护野生动物并且多种一些树木。
4. We should do everything we can to protect the environment. 我们应尽一切努力保护环境。
1.As a result, a lot of rich land has changed into desert.结果，大量肥沃的土地变成了荒漠。
2.Trees can stop the wind from blowing the earth away. 树木可以防风固土。
3.We shouldn’t leave rubbish here and there.我们不应该到处丢弃垃圾。
4.All these problems are very serious, so we must do something now.
Topic 3 What can we do at home to protect the environment?
(A journalist is interviewing Jane about environmental protection.)
Hi, Jane. Could I ask you a few questions? 你好，简。我可以问你一些问题吗？
We all know that you’re working for an organization that protects the environment. Can you tell us what you are doing there?我们都知道你在为一个环境保护组织工作。你能告诉我们你在那儿做什么工作吗？
Well, my main job is to help spread the message about protecting the environment. For example, the three R’s---reduce, reuse and recycle---are important. 嗯，我的主要工作是帮助宣传有关环保方面的信息。例如，宣传“3R”——减少使用，再次使用和回收再利用，这些都很重要。
So what can we do at home to protect the environment? 就保护环境而言，我们在家能做些什么呢？
We should reduce the waste we produce. For example, we should use both sides of paper and reuse plastic bags. 我们应该减少人为的浪费。比如，我们应该双面使用纸张，重复使用塑料袋。
What can students do at school?学生在学校里能做些什么？
Recycling can protect the environment, and it can save money, too. So we encourage students to collect waste paper and soft drink cans. Then we sort them so that they can be recycled. 回收再利用能保护环境而且能节约资金。所以我们鼓励学生去收集废纸、饮料瓶等并把它们分类存放，以便回收利用。
Wonderful ideas! Thank you!多么好的想法啊！谢谢！
It’s a pleasure. 不用谢。
Hi, Michael. Would you like to be a greener person? 嘿，迈克尔。你想成为一名环保使者吗？
Of course, I’d love to. But what should I do?当然，我很乐意。但是我应该怎么做呢？
First, you ought to shut off the electricity when you leave a room. 首先，你离开房间的时候，应该随手关灯。
Oh, that’s easy. What’s next? 哦，那很容易。下一步怎么做呢？
Second, you’d better walk or ride a bike instead of taking a bus or a taxi if you travel a short distance. 第二，如果你短途旅行，最好步行或骑车而不是乘公共汽车或出租车。
That’s right. It will save energy and reduce air pollution.对，那样会节约能源并减少空气污染。
Third, take a cloth bag when you go shopping. Don’t use plastic bags.第三，你去买东西的时候带上一个布袋。不要使用塑料袋。
It’s so easy to be a greener person成为一名环保使者真容易。
Easier said than done.说起来容易做起来难。
Well, actions speak louder than words.嗯，行动胜于雄辩。
In many countries, people produce power from coal, but it is very dirty and causes acid rain. Some countries use nuclear energy to produce power. However, nuclear power can be very dangerous. To solve the energy problem, people all over the world are looking for new ways to produce power.
China is one of the first countries in the world to use biogas technology. Farmers recycle straw, grass and animal waste to make biogas. This renewable energy is used in people’s everyday lives. Its key disadvantage is that the process requires a long time (up to 30 days) and the cost is high.
Electric vehicles were developed in the 1990s. On April 11, 2010, a new kind of vehicle named “Yezi” was shown in the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. It produces electricity from the sun, the wind and CO2. It can not only protect the environment but also save energy. It’s too small to hold many people, but larger models will be developed in the near future.
In China, the best-known maglev train is the German-built one in Shanghai. It takes people just 7 minutes to go to the airport 30 km away. The train can reach a top speed of 431 km per hour. It is quiet and quick. There is no wheel noise, because there are no wheels. Maglev trains are very energy-efficient and do not pollute the air. However, maglev guide paths are much more expensive than traditional steel railways.
1.Recycling can protect the environment, and it can save money, too.回收再利用能保护环境而且能节约资金。
2.people produce power from coal, but it is very dirty and causes acid rain. 人们用煤来生产动力，但是这种方法很脏并且会导致酸雨。
1.Would you like to be a greener person?你想成为一名环保使者吗？
2.First, you ought to shut off the electricity when you leave a room. 首先，你离开房间的时候，应该随手关灯。
3.Easier said than done.说起来容易做起来难。
4.Actions speak louder than words. 行动胜于雄辩。
5. The train can reach a top speed of 431 km per hour. 火车最高速度可达431千米。
Kangkang:Hi, boys, come and have a look! I have a poster of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck.
Li Xiang:Oh, it's so nice! You can stick it on the wall.
Wang Junfeng:That's a good idea. Guess what! My parents and I are going to visit Disneyland near Los Angeles. I will be able to see more cartoon characters.
Kangkang:Oh, you're so lucky! Disneyland is enjoyed by millions of people from all over the world. I hope I can go there one day.
Li Xiang:Me, too. Are you ready for your trip?
Wang Junfeng:Yes, of course. I can't wait to fly there!
Kangkang:You'll have a good chance to practice English there.
Wang Junfeng:You're right. English is spoken as the main language in America.
Li Xiang:Yeah. It is also widely used throughout the world now.
Wang Junfeng:But I'm not good at English. I'm a little afraid.
Kangkang:Don't worry. Try your best and work much harder from now on.
Wang Junfeng:Thanks. I will.
Who created Mickey Mouse?
Mickey Mouse was created by Walt Disney, a great film-maker.
Walt Disney made a lot of cartoon film.
He was also an artist.
When he was young, Disney's family was poor.
He used to sit in the family garage and draw pictures.
One day, a mouse came into the garage and played on the floor.
Disney stopped drawing and watched the mouse.
Then he gave some bread to the mouse.
Day after day, the mouse came back for more bread.
In this way, the artist and the mouse became good friends.
He drew many different pictures of the mouse.
At last, he was pleased with one of them.
He called the mouse drawing Mickey Mouse.
(Jane is talking with her father before he goes to Cuba.)
Jane:Dad, why are you packing your bags?
Father:I'm going to Cuba on business tonight. Here you seen my passport?
Jane:It's in your night table. Dad, is English spoken as the official language in Cuba?
Father:No, Spanish is spoken as the official language there.
Jane:Is Spanish similar to English?
Father:Not really. Perhaps a few words are the same.
Jane:Oh, I see. Is it possible for you to have trouble communicating?
Father:Yes. I don't think I will have any long conversations in Spanish. If necessary, I'll ask an interpreter for help.
Jane:Will the interpreter explain to you the culture of the country?
Father:Of course. Understanding the language and the culture can help me work well.
Jane:Have a good trip. I wish you success!
English Around the World (I)
There are More than 3 000 language are spoken in the world.
Of all these languages, English is the most widely used.
Recent studies show that more than 500 million people speak English as their mother tongue.
From it's roots in England, the language was spread around the world by English traders and English governments in new lands.
One of these new lands became the United States of America.
The population of the United States is 309 milliom, making it the country with the largest number of native English speakers.
About 300 milliom people speak English as their second language.
There are even more people, like some in Europe as well as in China and Jaban, who study English as a foreign language.
English has become the base language for international business, for the world's airlines and even for the Internet.
Whatever language people speak, they need to know some English if they work in these fields.
It is clear that the English language is becoming more important.
English Around the World (II)全世界的英语（二）
English has become widely used around the world.
Why has this happened? We may find the answer from history.
In the nineteeth century, Great Britain became a powerful country, so English became an international language.
Then, since the 1950s, the U.S.A. has become more and more powerful.
The American computer and Internet industry have taken the leading position in the world.
As a result, the internet has helped English to become much more popular.
China, a country with the largest population in the world, has encouraged more people to learn English since the 1970s.
Since the 1990s, English learning has been very popular with Chinese people.
Many of them have done well in English and have made great progress in speaking it.
Now, students are required to learn English and the study of English is regarded as a very important industry in China as well as in the rest of the world.
(Wang Junfeng and his parents are going to the USA. Michael and Kangkang are going to see them off. Now they are on their way to the airport.)
Wang Junfeng:I can't believe that I'm flying to Disneyland. I'm so excited.
Kangkang:Of course you are.
(Michael sees a stranger putting out hand with his thumb raised.)
Michael:The stranger is asking for a ride. Look at his gesture!
(The driver stops the minibus.)
Foreigner:Excuse me, could you please give me a ride to the airport?
Driver:Sure. We're going to the same place. Get on, please.
Foreigner:Thank you very much.
(They reach the airport twenty minutes later.)
Kangkang:What time is your flight?
Wang Junfeng:At 5 o'clock. My uncle is meeting us tomorrow. But I'll still worried about my English.
Kangkang:No need to worry. You can buy the guidebook, A Tour in the USA.
Wang Junfeng:Good idea. I hope I won't have much difficulty in communication.
Michael:Whenever you need help, send me an e-mail or call me.
Wang Junfeng:Thank you very much. I have to go now. Bye!
(Jane meets Kangkang and Yukio at the school gate.)
Jane:Hi, Kangkang and Yukio!
Kangkang:Yukio, when Jane says "Hi" she waves her hand, but when you say "Hello" you bow.
Yukio:In Japan, we bow when we are saying hello as a sign of respect.
Jane:In Canada, we wave as a sign of peace and feiendship.
Kangkang:I think that is known as body language. We use body language to communicate how we feel, even if there is silence.
Yukio:Did you notice that Miss Wang smiles when she is happy, and when she is angry she put her hands on her hips? Then I know whether she will praise or punish us.
Jane:When my little sister is angry, she crosses her arms and stamps her foot!
Kangkang:I wonder if body language means the same thing in all cultures.
Jane:We should do some research. People could communicate better if they knew more about their body language.
Yukio:Let's ask Miss Wang and Ms. Jones if they will help us with our research.
Jane:That is a good idea. Goodbye, Kangkang. Goodbye, Yukio.
Kangkang and Yukio:Goodbye, Jane.
Some things usually have different meanings in differens cultures.
Here are some words about animals that are used differently in western cultures and Chinese culture.
Most phrases in Chinese about the dog, such as "a homeless dog", "a mad dog","a running dog" and "a dog catching a mouse", have negative meanings.
But in western countries, dogs are considered honest and good friends of humans.
The word, "dog", has positive meanings.
For example, "you are a lucky dog" means you are a lucky person.
比如，“you are a lucky dog”的意思是你是一个幸运儿。
And "every dog has its day" means each person has good luck at times.
“every dog has its day”的意思是每个人都有得意的时候。
As we know, dragons are very important in Chinese culture.
In ancient times, dragons were regarded as strong and magical creatures.
They brought hope and good luck.
The ancient emperors compared themselves to dragons.
Nowadays, many parents want their children to become"dragons".
But in western cultures, dragons were dangerous animals.
Heroes killed them to protect people.
Some things have similar meanings in Chinese culture and western cultures.
The rose is regarded as a symbol of love in both China and some western countries.
People in China and the West think the rose also stands for peace, courage and friendship.
When we pay attention to the cultural meanings of words, we will understand them better.
English is spoken by people in many places.
It began in England but spread as the British people left their coutry and made new homes.
Now, English is the language spoken by most people in countries like Canada, America and Australia.
After many years, the English language began to change.
The changes were maily expressions and spellings.
Sometimes different people use different words to mean the same thing.
People in England say "underground" while people in America say "subway".
In America an elevater starts on the first floor, but in Britain it starts on the ground floor.
美国电梯的第一层叫“first floor”，而英国人则用“ground floor”。
"Colour" and "centre" are British spellings while"color" and "center" are American spellings for the same words.
Pronunciation of words and ways of speaking have changed as well.
It is possible to tell whether a person is American or British by listening to his or her speech.
The English language has also changed by borrowing words from other languages.
The Americans borrowed "cent" from old French and "cookbook" from German.
They also borrowed "tofu" and "kowtow" from Chinese.
The English language is changing all the time, but people from English-speaking countries are still able to understand each other.
Li Ming:How nice to see you back, Junfeng! How was your trip?
Wang Junfeng:Wonderful! I've been to many places of interest, and I enjoyed myself in Disneyland.
Li Hong:Could you make yourself understood in the U.S.A?
Wang Junfeng:Not really. Sometimes I got into trouble. They spoke too quickly for me and there were many different accents. I couldn't have long conversations with the people there. I think I should work harder at English.
Li Ming:Yes, I agree. I know oral English is very important, but I dare not speak English in public. And I always feel sleepy in English classes. I'm really afraid of the final exam.
Li Hong:I'm afraid, too. And it's very difficult for me to remember new words.
Wang Junfeng:Me, too. I've worked hard at it for a whole week, but it seems that I haven't made any progress. I don't know what to do. At times I feel like giving up.
Li Hong:Please don't let these difficulties discourage you. Perhaps we can ask Kangkang for help. He is good at English.
You look so worried, Li Ming. What's wrong?
I'm afraid of the coming English test.
I don't know what to do.
Don't worry! I can help you.
Thank you! I have difficulty in pronunciation.
Listening to the English tape is helpful.
You can listen and repeat after it. That's a good idea.
But I always forget new words easily.
You can copy new words in a notebook and take it with you.
Then you can remember the new words wherever you are. I'll do that. Thanks.这样不管在哪里你都可以背新单词了。我会的。谢谢。
Can you understand the dialog when watching the movie?
A little, but if they speak quickly, I can't follow them.
I think you should take part in the English corner, and you can practice speaking and listening there.
Really? I hope it works. But I am also weak in writing compositions.
You can keep a diary in English. OK, I'll have a try. Thank you very much.
Wang Junfeng:Kangkang, could you give us some advice on how to learn English well?
Kangkang:Sure. Two years ago, I was also weak in English. How to improve it was my biggest problem. So I went to Mr. Brown and I've learned a lot from him.
Wang Junfeng:Great. How do you remember new words?
Kangkang:I always copy new words on pieces of paper, stick them on the walls in my bedroom or in the living room, and read the words aloud when I see them. I change them often. Also, I always read the English words on the objects I see.
Li Hong:That sounds interesting. I'll try it. I always read English textbooks, but some texts are difficult for me. Could you please tell me how to increase my reading ability?
Kangkang:Do more reading. Try to guess the meanings of new words, and get the main idea of the article.
Li Ming:Kangkang, I dare not answer questions in class because I'm afraid of making mistakes.
Kangkang:Don't be shy. Think about your answer, take a deep breath and smile, and then answer the question. Smiling is always helpful.
Li Ming:Thank you. I'll give a try.
(Miss Wang is holding a class meeting on how to learn English. She asks two students to report the results of their discussion.)
I'm very glad to share our group's opinions with you. Kangkang said that he previewed the day's lesson before class, took notes in class and reviewed them after class. Lin Ping said, "Read a passage. Then try to retell it yourself."
Yu Zhen thought studying grammar was important when learining English. I myself prefer watching English movies, though sometimes I can't understand them exactly. These are our opinions. Thank you for listening!
It's an honor to talk with all of you here. Our group agrees with some of Group One's opinions. However, we have some other ideas.
Xu Duoduo said that joining an English club was the best way to improve her English. Cheng Le advised us to read a good English newspaper. But she said, "We shouldn't translate every word when we are reading."
Shu Yan told us we should speak English with our teachers, classmates and even with foreigners as often as possible. That's all. Thanks. Good job!
You two have told us many good methods. Each of us can use one or more of them. But remember to choose the ones that suit you best. I'm sure that you will make great progress as long as you stick to them.
And I think keeping a diary in English is a good way to improve your writing. Also, the chants, songs and riddles in our textbooks are helpful.
Are you facing problems in learning English? If so, the following two ways will help you to learn it more easily and with more fun! "I downloaded English songs from the Internet. It has really improved my listening. What's more, I am happier when I study this way,"said one junior student.
Listening to your favorite English songs is actually an effective way. Before you listen, you can read first and find out what the song is about. While listening, pick some useful words or phrases. A dictionary may also be helpful if necessary.
Watching a movie is another good and interesting way. "It is wonderful to watch movies, and it can help your English a lot!" said a junior three student. "You can also imitate the pronunciation of the actors." So choose your favorite movie before watching. Then have paper and a pen ready as you may want to write down useful words or phrases.
In this way, you can increase the number of words and understand the dialogs better. Enjoy using the two ways, and you are sure to learn faster and do better!
Kangkang:Jane, why are you unhappy?
Jane:Because I was not allowed to play computer games last night.
Kangkang:It's bad for your health if you spend too much time on them.
Jane:Maybe you're right.
(Kangkang shows a model to Jane.)（康康给简看了一个模型。）
Kangkang:Look at this.
Jane:A model rocket! Who made it?
Kangkang:It was made by me.
Jane:Wow! What's it made of?
Kangkang:It's made of metal. Do you know what a rocket is used for?
Jane:Sure. It's used for sending satellites or spaceships into space.
Kangkang:You're right. I've learned a lot about spaceships from Mr. Brown and then I made this model rocket. I wish I could go into space some day.
Jane:I hope your dream will come true.
Michael:Look, a light bulb!
Jane:Yeah. it is widely used by people everywhere. Do you know when it was invented?
Michael:It was invented in 1879.
Jane:Who invented it?
Michael:Thomas Edison. It's said that he invented more than two thousand things during his life.
Jane:What about the radio?
Michael:The radio was invented by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895. Jane, let's go this way. Look! An airplane, but it's different form today's.
Jane:Yes. It was invented by Wilbur and Orville Wright in 1903.
An invention may be a new product or a new way of doing things. Inventions come about in many ways.
Most of the time, inventions happen because someone works to solve a problem. Sometimes inventions are the result of accidents. Look at your schoolbags. You have pencils, pens, crayons, rulers and some books. None of these things was planted in fields. They were made in factories and invented by someone.
Inventing is interesting and exciting and everyone can be an inventor.
Do you want to be an inventor? These are a few simple steps to follow in the invention process.
You can have wild and crazy thoughts. Remember that no idea is too silly. Many people laughed at the Wright brothers and said they would never fly. But they weren't discouraged by what people said. That's why now we have planes.
Careful planning is important in the invention process. This is the time to brainstorm for idea and to evaluate them.
Make a detailed drawing of your invention so others will understand how your invention works. Make a model of your invention. See if your invention works as it is planned. If not, do more research, redesign it, and test it again.
Every invention needs a name. Share your inventions with others.
Where Are We? 我们在哪里？
Where are we? 我们在哪里？
That was a big question when we first explores our world long ago.
The early explorers found that the stars in the sky were good guiding marks.
Using the stars, they could find out where they were and in which direction they were going.
This method worked well at night as long as the weather was good and the stars could be seen.
But it didn't work so well during the rest of the time. 但是其他时间效果就不太好了。
That was a problem. 这是个问题。
Today, the problem has been solved by the Global Positioning System(GPS).
It is like a man-made star. 它就像是人造星星。
We can use it at any time, in any place and in any weather to find out our position.
It can also be used to study the shape of the earth.
The GPS is a great invention that helps us explore our planet and discover where we are.
Kangkang: Hi, Maria! A wonderful movie will be shown tonight. Shall we go to watch it?
Maria: Great! What's it about?
Kangkang: It's about life in space.
Maria: That sounds exciting.
Kangkang: Yes. All the people travel by spaceship in the movie, and they can visit planets like Mars.
Maria: Really? Kangkang, do you think people will live on Mars in the future?
Kangkang: Yes, I think we will live in space one day.
Houses, schools and hospitals will be built on Mars.
We will be able to do anything that can be done on the earth.
Maria: What fun! I can't wait.
Kangkang:Maria, have you heard the news on TV about the space flight to Mars?
Maria:No, I haven't. Who will take part in the space flight?
Kangkang:Astronauts from China, the United States and Russia. They will travel into space and discover something new about Mars. I really admire them. I'd like to be an astronaut when I grow up.
Maria:It's really cool. However, I think you should first master some basic computer skills.
Kangkang:Sure. Maria, what are you going to be?
Maria:Mm, I am not sure. Sometimes I want to be a dancer, but I think I'm going to be a scientist in the future.
Kangkang:Why? I think you dance very well.
Maria:Yes, I'm sure I can perform ballet on the stage in the future. But I prefer science to dance. It is my favorite subject in school. I'm excited about the things that will be discovered in the future.
Kangkang:That's wonderful! Let's work hard. Then our dreams will be realized.
What do you know about Mars? What does it look like? Mars is the fourth planet from the sun in our solar system and is named after Mars, the Roman god of war. Its diameter is 53% as wide as that of the earth. Mars goes around the sun at a distance of about 228 million kilometers.
You can tell which planet is Mars because it is bright red in the night sky. It looks like a red and orange ball. It's very beautiful. But during spring and summer, the surface of Mars is covered by strong storms.
The gravity on the surface of Mars is about two-fifths as strong as it is on the earth. So a person who weight 90 kilos on the earth weights only 36 kilos on Mars. The temperature on Mars is between -138℃ and 28℃. The air has only 0.13% oxygen.
火星表面的重力大概是地球的1/5。所以在地球上有90公斤重的人在火星上只有36公斤。火星上的温度大约在-138℃ 到 28℃之间。空气中含氧量只有0.13%。
It takes a spaceship about eight months to reach Mars from the earth when the two planets are closest to each other. Scientists are still searching for more information about Mars.
Scientists think that there has been life on the earth for millions of years. However, we haven't found life on other planets yet. The earth is a planet and it goes around the sun. And there are seven other planet that also go around the sun.
The sun and its planets are called the solar system. The solar system is a small part of the universe.
Scientists have launched many spaceships to explore other planets in the solar system. Some spaceships have gone beyond the solar system. However, no one has discovered any life in space yet.
Why has no one from other planets sent us a message? Have they tried to send information to us? With so many stars in space, are we alone, or is there life on other planets in space?
(Michael and Kangkang are in the Science Museum.)
Michael:Kangkang, who is the first Chinese to travel into space?
Kangkang:Yang Liwei. He is our national hero who traveled around the earth in Shenzhou V for 21 hours in 2003. China is the third nation that sent a person into space.
Michael:Wonderful! All of you must be very proud.
Kangkang:Of course we are. What's more, we have launched another four spaceships in the past few years.
Michael:That's great! It proves that China has made great progress in its space industry.
Kangkang:That's right. I'm sure that China will send more spaceships into space.
Michael:Look, what a large crowd! Let's go and see.
Kangkang:Wow! Chang'e I. It's a spaceship which was launched as China's first lunar probe. I hope I can travel to the moon one day.
Michael:I think your dream will be realized in the future.
(Kangkang is asking Mr.Brown something about spaceships.)
Kangkang:Spaceships are so amazing! Mr.Brown, could you please tell me some recent spaceship developments?
Mr.Brown:OK. Spaceships which now mainly use electronic controls used to be controlled by astronauts.
Kangkang:But how do they work?
Mr.Brown:Astronauts use computers to control the speed and direction of their spaceships, even the temperature.
Kangkang:Perfect! But I know so little about computer technology.
Mr.Brown:It's important to master computer technology. So I advise you to discover new ways to make computers serve us better.
Kangkang:Good idea. Thanks for your introduction, Mr. Brown. I think that if I work hard then nothing is impossible.
The Importance of Computers
Since computers were invented in the USA in the 1950s, they have become very important in many areas of work and leisure.
There is no doubt that computers are very useful in technology and business.
In space, computers have been used to control the speed and direction of a spaceship.
With the help of computers, doctors can find diseases easily and solve other problems.
For example, tiny computers which are inside patients' bodies can keep their hearts beating normally.
In factories, robots are controlled by computers that are like human brains. They can do work that is dangerous to humans.
In business, computers are used to place and cancel orders. They are also making the workplace safer and better.
Since the Internet came into being, people's lives at home have changed, too.
More and more people have personal computers that are used to play games and watch movies.
Thanks to the Internet, people can do shopping and do business at home.
Instead of writing letters on paper, people communicate by sending e-mails and chatting on line.
The whole world is connected. The Internet is making the world smaller, like a village.
Computers have improved our lives, but they have brought problems, too.
For instance, if we work on computers too long, we may get headaches or sore eyes.
If we play computer games too much, we won't have enough time to study or exercise.
Besides, not everything we read on the Internet is true or good for us.
Computers help us at work and at home, but they must be used properly.
Robots-Our Servants in the Future?
What will our future be like?
No one knows for certain, but most people think that robots will be part of our lives.
Will they be friendly or unfriendly?
So far, robots haven't caused us any problems.
They work for us like servants all the time.
They help us do dangerous and difficult work.
People are surprised at the rapid development of robots.
In a few years, perhaps robots will think on their own, just as people use their brains and act for themselves.
However, once robots can think for themselves, problems may appear.
One scientist warns that if robots start to think for themselves, they will no longer want to be our servants, but our masters.
The scientist also warns that if we are lucky, they might treat us as we now treat our pets; if we are not lucky, who knows what will happen?
Perhaps there will be a war between human beings and robots.