外刊精读| 全国失联,宛如末日……汤加海底火山喷发,多国发海啸预警!

据外媒报道,南太平洋岛国汤加的洪阿哈阿帕伊岛海底火山14、15日连续两天剧烈喷发,首都努库阿洛法出现1.2米高的海啸。
火山喷发将火山灰等杂质喷射向天空,烟柱冲向19千米高空。大量火山灰、蒸汽在太平洋海面上腾起超级蘑菇云。
According to the Tonga Geological Services, a massive underwater volcano erupted just before sunset on Friday with plumes reaching more than 19 km above sea level. Satellite images showed a huge eruption, with a plume of ash, steam and gas rising like a mushroom above the blue Pacific waters.

火山喷发还引发太平洋沿岸地区发布海啸警报,日本、智利和澳大利亚等低洼沿海地区已进行疏散。

Tsunami advisories were issued for other Pacific islands, the Australian east coast, Japan, Chile and the US Pacific coast.

据美联社报道,由于通信网络受到干扰无法与外界沟通,目前仍未收到该国的人员伤亡及财产损失报告。

There were no immediate reports of injuries or on the extent of the damage because all internet connectivity with Tonga was lost at about 6.40 pm local time, AP reported.
专家预测,喷发可能会持续数周或数月,并提醒汤加民众必须对此保持警惕。
  
汤加火山喷发引发局地海啸
日美多国严阵以待
  
卫星照片显示,火山喷发后,火山灰、蒸汽等在当地太平洋海面上空升腾而起,蔓延距离达241千米,巨大的声响远在美国阿拉斯加都可以听到。
  
A cloud of ash and steam reached about 241 km across, an event captured by satellite images that have been shared by various meteorological agencies.

图源:路透社
汤加首都努库阿洛法很快观测到海啸。汤加气象局说,汤加全境面临海啸、暴雨、洪水和强风的威胁。
  
社交媒体上的视频显示,大浪涌进居民住宅。有汤加民众形容称,“我们的家在摇动,之后海浪来了。我的弟弟还以为附近发生炸弹爆炸。”
On Tonga, home to about 105,000 people, video posted to social media showed large waves washing ashore in coastal areas, swirling around homes, a church and other buildings. 
外刊精读| 全国失联,宛如末日……汤加海底火山喷发,多国发海啸预警!《新西兰先驱报》:第一批图片显示火山喷发、海啸的超强破坏力,汤加居民警告说空气有毒,水被污染
此次喷发还对太平洋地区产生了重大影响。汤加周边国家斐济和萨摩亚均发布海啸警报。新西兰国家紧急事务管理局15日发布警告,北部和东部沿海地区可能会受到巨大海浪袭击,该国军方正随时待命。
Authorities in the nearby island nations of Fiji and Samoa also issued warnings, telling people to avoid the shoreline due to strong currents and dangerous waves. In New Zealand, officials warned of possible storm surges from the eruption.

1月15日,汤加火山爆发后,智利地方当局发出海啸预警,在海岸边游玩的人们纷纷撤离。图源:路透社

日本岩手县久慈港等多地观测到海啸,16日凌晨连续发布海啸警报。美国西海岸和夏威夷州、加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省等地也发布了海啸提示。
  
日本岩手县居民16日接到海啸警报后转移至高地
中国自然资源部海啸预警中心根据最新监测结果分析,中国沿海海域于16日凌晨监测到海啸波,其中浙江石浦站最大海啸波幅约20厘米,其余潮位站海啸波幅均小于15厘米。此次过程未对中国沿岸造成灾害性影响。
  
汤加全国通讯中断
伤亡数字无法统计

据《新西兰先驱报》报道,由于火山爆发,汤加全国的通讯都已中断,新西兰总理阿德恩于今日表示,新西兰当局正在努力与汤加取得联系,但由于灾情严重,难以展开评估工作,暂时还无法统计当地的伤亡及财产损失情况。

新西兰总理阿德恩资料图,图源:路透社

在16日的新闻发布会上,阿德恩对在场记者表示,自己看到的汤加灾情画面“非常令人担忧”,但这场灾害导致汤加全国通讯中断,新西兰当局正在努力与汤加取得联系。

New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern says Tonga's capital Nuku'alofa suffered “significant” damage from a powerful volcanic eruption that triggered a tsunami, but there were no reports of injuries or deaths as of yet.

另外,新西兰国防军已在调度救援飞机和船只,外交部等机构正试图通过包括民间渠道在内的各种方式,设法联系汤加的有关部门,并希望了解新西兰可以为当地提供何种帮助。

据路透社报道,自海啸席卷汤加后,大约在15日晚6点40分,汤加当地的互联网和电话线路就已出现大面积故障,导致全境10.5万居民难以和外界取得联络。截至发稿前,各方尚无法了解海啸对各地的破坏程度,只能通过卫星图像研究当地灾情。

Ardern's comments on Sunday came as Pacific nations and humanitarian groups struggled to establish communications with Tonga, a day after the disasters cut telephone and internet connections, leaving its 105,000 residents virtually unreachable.

火山喷发或将持续?
专家提醒汤加需保持警惕
  
据悉,汤加人口约有10.5万,该国由汤加塔布、瓦瓦乌、哈派三大群岛和埃瓦、纽阿等小岛组成,共173个岛屿,其中36个有人居住。
  
洪阿哈阿帕伊岛是高度活跃的汤加-克马德克群岛火山弧的一部分。而汤加首都位于火山喷发以南65公里的地方,许多地方据称已被火山灰覆盖。
  
图源:路透社
奥克兰大学的火山学家克罗宁(Shane Cronin指出,这次喷发是汤加过去30年来最大的喷发之一。“横向蔓延范围广,产生的灰烬多。”
  

Prof Shane Cronin, a volcanologist at the University of Auckland, said the eruption was one of the biggest in Tonga in the past 30 years.

"The most remarkable thing about it is how rapidly and violently it's spread. This one was larger, a much wider lateral spread, much more ash was produced. I expect there to be many centimeters of ash that have been deposited on Tonga," he said.

克罗宁还表示,对同一火山的历史喷发的研究表明,目前的喷发事件可能会持续数周或数月。
  
他还提醒说,汤加人民必须对进一步的火山喷发,“尤其是在短时间内发生的海啸保持警惕,并应避开低洼地区。”
 

卫星图像显示,喷发的大片火山灰以及气体像蘑菇云一样,从蓝色的太平洋海域升起。由于通信网络受到干扰无法与外界沟通,目前仍未收到该国的人员伤亡及财产损失报告。专家预测,喷发可能会持续数周或数月,并提醒汤加民众必须对此保持警惕。

 

相信很少有人真正亲眼见过真正的火山喷发,感觉火山喷发离我们很遥远。但其实火山喷发是一种很常见的自然现象,它是如何形成的呢?也有人会有这样的疑惑:为什么火山在海底喷发,为何海水无法将其浇灭?今天我们特别整理了TED科普频道的英文短片,或许会解开你对火山喷发的一些疑惑。

 

火山喷发背后的秘密

↓↓↓ 上下滑动,查看演讲稿 ↓↓↓

In February of 1942, Mexican farmer Dionisio Pulido thought he heard thunder coming from his cornfield. However, the sound wasn’t coming from the sky. The source was a large, smoking crack emitting gas and ejecting rocks. This fissure would come to be known as the volcano Paricutin, and over the next 9 years, its lava and ash would cover over 200 square km. But where did this new volcano come from, and what triggered its unpredictable eruption?

1942年2月,墨西哥农民狄尼西奥·普利多(Dionisio Pulido)以为自己听到了从玉米田里传来的雷声。然而,这声音并非来自于天空。声音的来源是一道巨大的、冒烟的裂缝,正在喷射出气体和岩石。之后,这条裂缝将被称为帕里库廷火山(Paricutin),在之后的九年,它的熔岩和火山灰将会覆盖200多平方公里的区域。但是,这座新的火山从何而来?又是什么引起了它出人意料的喷发呢?

The story of any volcano begins with magma. Often, this molten rock forms in areas where ocean water is able to slip into the Earth’s mantle and lower the layer’s melting point. The resulting magma typically remains under the Earth’s surface thanks to the delicate balance of three geological factors. The first is lithostatic pressure. This is the weight of the Earth’s crust pushing down on the magma below. Magma pushes back with the second factor, magmastatic pressure. The battle between these forces strains the third factor: the rock strength of the Earth’s crust. Usually, the rock is strong enough and heavy enough to keep the magma in place. But when this equilibrium is thrown off, the consequences can be explosive.

任何火山的故事都得从岩浆说起。通常,在形成这些熔融岩石的区域,海水能渗入地幔,降低地幔的熔点。由于三个地质因素之间的微妙平衡,这些生成的岩浆通常会留在在地表之下。第一个因素是岩石静压力(lithostatic pressure)。也就是地壳的重量将岩浆向下推的力。岩浆的反推力就是第二个因素,岩浆静压力(magmastatic pressure)。这场力的较量会作用在第三个因素上:地壳的岩石强度。通常,岩石足够坚固、沉重,可以让岩浆保持在原位。但是当这种平衡被打破,就有可能产生爆炸性的后果。

One of the most common causes of an eruption is an increase in magmastatic pressure. Magma contains various elements and compounds, many of which are dissolved in the molten rock. At high enough concentrations, compounds like water or sulfur no longer dissolve, and instead form high-pressure gas bubbles. When these bubbles reach the surface, they can burst with the force of a gunshot. And when millions of bubbles explode simultaneously, the energy can send plumes of ash into the stratosphere. But before they pop, they act like bubbles of C02 in a shaken soda. Their presence lowers the magma’s density, and increases the buoyant force pushing upward through the crust. Many geologists believe this process was behind the Paricutin eruption in Mexico.

火山喷发最常见的原因之一是岩浆静压力的上升。岩浆里含有各种各样的元素和化合物,其中许多都溶解在熔融的岩石中。达到足够高的浓度之后,水或硫这类化合物将不再溶解,而是会形成高压气泡。当这些气泡到达表面,就可能会以枪击般的力度迸裂。当成千上万的气泡同时爆炸,其能量可以将火山灰的烟柱送入平流层。但在爆裂之前,这些气泡就像是摇晃过的汽水里的二氧化碳。它们的存在降低了岩浆的密度,增加了向上推动地壳的浮力。许多地质学家相信这就是墨西哥帕里库廷火山爆发背后的过程。

There are two known natural causes for these buoyant bubbles. Sometimes, new magma from deeper underground brings additional gassy compounds into the mix. But bubbles can also form when magma begins to cool. In its molten state, magma is a mixture of dissolved gases and melted minerals. As the molten rock hardens, some of those minerals solidify into crystals. This process doesn’t incorporate many of the dissolved gasses, resulting in a higher concentration of the compounds that form explosive bubbles.

这些上浮的气泡有两个已知的自然成因。有的时候,从更深的地底产生的新岩浆会带来额外的气态化合物。不过,当岩浆开始冷却时,也可能会形成气泡。当处于熔融状态时,岩浆是溶解的气体与熔化的矿物的混合物。当熔融的岩石变硬,其中的一些矿物会凝固为结晶。这个过程并不会吸收多少溶解的气体,这导致了能形成爆炸气泡的化合物的浓度升高。

Not all eruptions are due to rising magmastatic pressure— sometimes the weight of the rock above can become dangerously low. Landslides can remove massive quantities of rock from atop a magma chamber, dropping the lithostatic pressure and instantly triggering an eruption. This process is known as “unloading” and it’s been responsible for numerous eruptions, including the sudden explosion of Mount St. Helens in 1980. But unloading can also happen over longer periods of time due to erosion or melting glaciers. In fact, many geologists are worried that glacial melt caused by climate change could increase volcanic activity.

然而并不是所有火山爆发都是由岩浆静压力的上升引起的——有时候,上方岩石的重量可能会降低到危险的程度。山体滑坡可能会从岩浆房的上方带走大量岩石,这降低了岩石静压力,并会立即触发火山爆发。这个过程被称为“卸荷”,它是无数火山爆发的原因,其中就包括1980年圣海伦火山的突然爆发。但是由于侵蚀作用或者冰川融化,卸荷也可能长期发生。事实上,许多地质学家正在担心由气候变化导致的冰川融化可能会增加火山活动。

Finally, eruptions can occur when the rock layer is no longer strong enough to hold back the magma below. Acidic gases and heat escaping from magma can corrode rock through a process called hydrothermal alteration, gradually turning hard stone into soft clay. The rock layer could also be weakened by tectonic activity. Earthquakes can create fissures allowing magma to escape to the surface, and the Earth’s crust can be stretched thin as continental plates shift away from each other.

最后,在岩石层强度不再足以抑制岩浆的地方,火山喷发也有可能发生。从岩浆中逸出的酸性气体和热量可以通过名为“热液蚀变”的过程侵蚀岩石,逐渐将坚硬的石头变成软质的粘土。岩石层也可能会被板块运动削弱。地震会制造出裂缝,令岩浆逃到地表,且当大陆板块彼此远离时,地壳可能会被拉伸变薄。

Unfortunately, knowing what causes eruptions doesn’t make them easy to predict. While scientists can roughly determine the strength and weight of the Earth’s crust, the depth and heat of magma chambers makes measuring changes in magmastatic pressure very difficult. But volcanologists are constantly exploring new technology to conquer this rocky terrain. Advances in thermal imaging have allowed scientists to detect subterranean hotspots. Spectrometers can analyze gases escaping magma. And lasers can precisely track the impact of rising magma on a volcano’s shape. Hopefully, these tools will help us better understand these volatile vents and their explosive eruptions.

遗憾的是,了解火山爆发的原因并不会使预测火山喷发变得更容易。尽管科学家们可以大致测定地壳的强度和重量,岩浆房的深度和热量使得测量岩浆静态压的变化变得非常困难。但是火山学家们在不断探索新的技术,以攻克这种岩石地形。热成像技术的发展已经能让科学家们探测地下热点。光谱仪可以分析从岩浆逸出的气体。激光可以精确地追踪上升的岩浆对于火山地形的影响。但愿这些工具能帮助我们更好地理解这些蠢蠢欲动的火山口以及它们的大爆发。

In February of 1942, Mexican farmer Dionisio Pulido thought he heard thunder coming from his cornfield. However, the sound wasn’t coming from the sky. The source was a large, smoking crack emitting gas and ejecting rocks. This fissure would come to be known as the volcano Paricutin, and over the next 9 years, its lava and ash would cover over 200 square km. But where did this new volcano come from, and what triggered its unpredictable eruption?

1942年2月,墨西哥农民狄尼西奥·普利多(Dionisio Pulido)以为自己听到了从玉米田里传来的雷声。然而,这声音并非来自于天空。声音的来源是一道巨大的、冒烟的裂缝,正在喷射出气体和岩石。之后,这条裂缝将被称为帕里库廷火山(Paricutin),在之后的九年,它的熔岩和火山灰将会覆盖200多平方公里的区域。但是,这座新的火山从何而来?又是什么引起了它出人意料的喷发呢?

 

语法知识提炼:分词短语做后置定语

  • 【本段的用法】现在分词短语作后置定语。

现在分词用作后置定语通常表示这个分词的逻辑主语和它是一种主动的主谓关系,但由于句中已经有了谓语,所以在这种情况下只能用非谓语动词中的现在分词的形式来表示:

The girl sitting by my side is my sister. 坐在我旁边的是我妹妹。

本段中的句子:

The source was a large, smoking crack emitting gas and ejecting rocks. 

emit的逻辑主语是crack

  • 过去分词短语作后置定语

和现在分词不同的是,过去分词和它修饰的中心词是一种逻辑上的动宾关系,有的时候经常可以看作是定语从句的省略形式:

This is a film directed by Zhang Yimou. 这是张智谋执导的一部电影。

 

以下生词在火山爆发主题文章中很常见,了解一下:

Fissure /ˈfɪʃə(r)/ :( technical 术语 ) a long deep crack in sth, especially in rock or in the earth (岩石、土地等中深长的)裂缝,裂隙

lava and ash:熔岩和火山灰

Lava: hot liquid rock that comes out of a volcano (火山喷出的)熔岩,岩浆

 

The story of any volcano begins with magma. Often, this molten rock forms in areas where ocean water is able to slip into the Earth’s mantle and lower the layer’s melting point. The resulting magma typically remains under the Earth’s surface thanks to the delicate balance of three geological factors. The first is lithostatic pressure. This is the weight of the Earth’s crust pushing down on the magma below. Magma pushes back with the second factor, magmastatic pressure. The battle between these forces strains the third factor: the rock strength of the Earth’s crust. Usually, the rock is strong enough and heavy enough to keep the magma in place. But when this equilibrium is thrown off, the consequences can be explosive.

任何火山的故事都得从岩浆说起。通常,在形成这些熔融岩石的区域,海水能渗入地幔,降低地幔的熔点。由于三个地质因素之间的微妙平衡,这些生成的岩浆通常会留在在地表之下。第一个因素是岩石静压力(lithostatic pressure)。也就是地壳的重量将岩浆向下推的力。岩浆的反推力就是第二个因素,岩浆静压力(magmastatic pressure)。这场力的较量会作用在第三个因素上:地壳的岩石强度。通常,岩石足够坚固、沉重,可以让岩浆保持在原位。但是当这种平衡被打破,就有可能产生爆炸性的后果。

 

Magma: ( technical 术语 ) very hot liquid rock found below the earth's surface 岩浆;熔岩

mantle /ˈmæntl/: [ sing. ] ( geology 地 ) the part of the earth below the crust and surrounding the core 地幔

 

仿写句式提炼

But when this equilibrium is thrown off, the consequences can be explosive.

这句话可以直接背下来,在表达“情况失衡产生恶劣后果”的意思时,可以直接搬过去。

Equilibrium /ˌiːkwɪˈlɪbriəm/:a state of balance, especially between opposing forces or influences 平衡;均衡;均势

throw off: V to free oneself of; discard 摆脱; 抛弃, 此处意为“打破”

 

[汇总] “归因于”的中性表达

  • thanks to sb / sth (informal) (sometimes ironic) :because of someone or something归功于某人/某事物; 多亏(幸亏)某人/某事物 

thanks to 表示原因。通常指的是好原因产生好结果,比如:

The disease gained new prominence in 2014, thanks to the Ice Bucket Challenge.这种病因“冰桶挑战”活动再次获得关注。

但也可以指不好的原因产生不好的结果,有讽刺意味,比如:

Thanks to government price controls, motorists had to wait an hour in line to fill up their gas tanks.由于政府的物价管制,开汽车的人要排队等一个钟头才能装满自己的油箱。

  • put down to:PHRASAL VERB If you put something down to a particular thing, you believe that it is caused by that thing. 把…归因于,比如:

You may be a sceptic and put it down to life's inequalities.你可能是个怀疑论者,并将其归因于生活的种种不平等。

  • attribute sth to sb / sth:  to believe or say that a situation or event is caused by something把…归因于…,比如:

She attributes her success to hard work and a little luck.她认为她的成功来自勤劳和一点运气。

  • Ascribe: V-T If you ascribe an event or condition to a particular cause, you say or consider that it was caused by that thing. 将…归因于,比如:

An autopsy eventually ascribed the baby's death to sudden infant death syndrome. 一次尸检最终把这名婴儿的死亡归因于婴儿猝死综合症。

  • Due to: [ not before noun ] ~ to sth/sb caused by sb/sth; because of sb/sth 由于;因为,比如:

The team's success was largely due to her efforts.这个队的成功在很大程度上是她努力的结果。

Most of the problems were due to human error. 多数问题都是人为错误造成的。

  • Owe to: ~ sth to sb/sth~ sb sth to exist or be successful because of the help or influence of sb/sth 归因于;归功于;起源于,比如:

The play owes much to French tragedy. 这部戏颇受法国悲剧的影响。 

  • chalk sth ˈup to sth: ( NAmE informal ) to consider that sth is caused by sth 把某事归因于,比如:

We can chalk that win up to a lot of luck. 我们可以把那次胜利归因于好运十足。 

  • have someone to thank for something 表示某事的成功还得谢谢某人,也可以理解与这件事情的成功要“归功于…”

In part, “Demon Slayer” has covid-19 to thank for its success.在某种程度上,《鬼灭之刃》的成功要归功于疫情。

英文释义:To have one to blame or acknowledge as the cause or source of something.

从释义中可以看出,这个表达不仅用于“好的事情”,也可以是坏事,比如:

I have two sick toddlers to thank for my lack of sleep last night.两个小家伙生病了,所以我昨天晚上没睡好。

 

语法知识提炼:Where引导定语从句

当where 引导定语从句时,Where前有表示地点的先行词,where 引导的从句修饰先行词,Where是关系副词,在从句中作地点状语,比如:

He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he is likely to lose control over the plane.他让自己置身于险境,很可能失去对飞机的掌控。

本段中的句子:

This molten rock forms in areas where ocean water is able to slip into the Earth’s mantle and lower the layer’s melting point.

where的先行词是areas;

Not all eruptions are due to rising magmastatic pressure— sometimes the weight of the rock above can become dangerously low. Landslides can remove massive quantities of rock from atop a magma chamber, dropping the lithostatic pressure and instantly triggering an eruption. This process is known as “unloading” and it’s been responsible for numerous eruptions, including the sudden explosion of Mount St. Helens in 1980. But unloading can also happen over longer periods of time due to erosion or melting glaciers. In fact, many geologists are worried that glacial melt caused by climate change could increase volcanic activity.

然而并不是所有火山爆发都是由岩浆静压力的上升引起的——有时候,上方岩石的重量可能会降低到危险的程度。山体滑坡可能会从岩浆房的上方带走大量岩石,这降低了岩石静压力,并会立即触发火山爆发。这个过程被称为“卸荷”,它是无数火山爆发的原因,其中就包括1980年圣海伦火山的突然爆发。但是由于侵蚀作用或者冰川融化,卸荷也可能长期发生。事实上,许多地质学家正在担心由气候变化导致的冰川融化可能会增加火山活动。

 

Landslide:( also land·fall ) a mass of earth, rock, etc. that falls down the slope of a mountain or a cliff (山坡或悬崖的)崩塌,塌方,滑坡,地滑

Erosion: N-UNCOUNT Erosion is the gradual destruction and removal of rock or soil in a particular area by rivers, the sea, or the weather. 侵蚀

melting glacier:冰川融化

Glacier: N-COUNT A glacier is an extremely large mass of ice which moves very slowly, often down a mountain valley. 冰川

A is responsible for B 此处表示“A是B的起因”,或者“A导致了B的发生”,此时它的取义是:~ (for sth) being the cause of sth 作为原因;成为起因

Cigarette smoking is responsible for about 90% of deaths from lung cancer.因患肺癌而死亡者,约90%是吸烟所致。

 

语法知识提炼:部分否定 

all的否定式可以是not all...或all...not,意思并不是“所有……都不……”,而是部分否定:“并非都……”、“不是所有的都……”。比如:

All that glitters is not gold. 并不是所有发光的东西都是金子。

Not all men can be masters. = All men cannot be masters.并非人人都能当头头。

Not all bamboo grows tall.并非所有的竹子都会长得很高。

这样的部分否定还常见于与both, every的搭配中:

both 的否定式:not…both (或:both… not) "并非两个……都……", 比如:

I don't want both the books. 我不是两本书都要。

Both (the) windows are not open. 两扇窗子并不都开着。

every…的否定式:"不是每……都……", 例如:

Not every book is educative. (或:Every book is not educative.)不是每本书都有教育意义的。

Not everyone likes this book. 并非人人都喜欢这本书。

This flower is not seen everywhere. 这花并不是随处可见的。

那么问题又来了:如果要对all, both, every做全部否定,该怎么办呢?

这时候,就需要用到它们相对应的否定词了,比如no, none, neither, no one, never, not (never)… at all 等。举几个栗子:

All of them can do it.>全部否定<None of them can do it.

Both are good.>全部否定< Neither is good.

Everybody likes it. >全部否定< Nobody likes it.

 

Finally, eruptions can occur when the rock layer is no longer strong enough to hold back the magma below. Acidic gases and heat escaping from magma can corrode rock through a process called hydrothermal alteration, gradually turning hard stone into soft clay. The rock layer could also be weakened by tectonic activity. Earthquakes can create fissures allowing magma to escape to the surface, and the Earth’s crust can be stretched thin as continental plates shift away from each other.

最后,在岩石层强度不再足以抑制岩浆的地方,火山喷发也有可能发生。从岩浆中逸出的酸性气体和热量可以通过名为“热液蚀变”的过程侵蚀岩石,逐渐将坚硬的石头变成软质的粘土。岩石层也可能会被板块运动削弱。地震会制造出裂缝,令岩浆逃到地表,且当大陆板块彼此远离时,地壳可能会被拉伸变薄。

 

corrosion(腐蚀)比较常见,它的动词形式是corrode /kəˈrəʊd/ :to destroy sth slowly, especially by chemical action; to be destroyed in this way 腐蚀;侵蚀

Acid corrodes metal. 酸腐蚀金属。

tectonic activity板块运动

Tectonic /tekˈtɒnɪk/:( geology 地 ) connected with the structure of the earth's surface 地壳构造的

Earth’s crust地壳

 

hold back:PHRASAL VERB To hold someone or something back means to prevent someone from doing something, or to prevent something from happening. 阻止,比如:

Stagnation in home sales is holding back economic recovery.住房销售的停滞正阻碍着经济的复苏。

[汇总] 关于“阻碍”的近义表达

  • stymie:to prevent sb from doing sth that they have planned or want to do; to prevent sth from happening阻挠;阻碍;阻止;妨碍,比如:

Mr Monti's resignation will stymie further reform until after the election.然而蒙蒂的辞职会在至下一次大选期间内扼制改革的进一步推行。

  • Get/stand in the way of: to prevent sb from doing sth; to prevent sth from happening 挡…的路;妨碍

He wouldn't allow emotions to get in the way of him doing his job.他不会让情绪妨碍自己的工作。

  • Thwart /θwɔːrt/ :[ VN ] ~ sth~ sb (in sth) to prevent sb from doing what they want to do 阻止;阻挠;对…构成阻力,比如:

to thwart sb's plans 阻挠某人的计划

She was thwarted in her attempt to take control of the party. 她控制这个政党的企图受阻了。

 

Unfortunately, knowing what causes eruptions doesn’t make them easy to predict. While scientists can roughly determine the strength and weight of the Earth’s crust, the depth and heat of magma chambers makes measuring changes in magmastatic pressure very difficult. But volcanologists are constantly exploring new technology to conquer this rocky terrain. Advances in thermal imaging have allowed scientists to detect subterranean hotspots. Spectrometers can analyze gases escaping magma. And lasers can precisely track the impact of rising magma on a volcano’s shape. Hopefully, these tools will help us better understand these volatile vents and their explosive eruptions.

遗憾的是,了解火山爆发的原因并不会使预测火山喷发变得更容易。尽管科学家们可以大致测定地壳的强度和重量,岩浆房的深度和热量使得测量岩浆静态压的变化变得非常困难。但是火山学家们在不断探索新的技术,以攻克这种岩石地形。热成像技术的发展已经能让科学家们探测地下热点。光谱仪可以分析从岩浆逸出的气体。激光可以精确地追踪上升的岩浆对于火山地形的影响。但愿这些工具能帮助我们更好地理解这些蠢蠢欲动的火山口以及它们的大爆发。

 

rocky terrain岩石地形

thermal imaging热成像技术

volatile vents蠢蠢欲动的火山口

Volatile:( often disapproving ) ( of a person or their moods 人或其情绪 ) changing easily from one mood to another 易变的;无定性的;无常性的

explosive eruptions大爆发

 

conquer我们知道可以用在战争中,表示“征服、攻克”,此处则是技术上的攻克,取义是:to succeed in dealing with or controlling sth (成功地)对付,克服,控制

The only way to conquer a fear is to face it. 克服恐惧的唯一方法是正视恐惧。

 

语法知识提炼:动名词做主语

  • 【本段中的用法】动名词(短语)有时可用作主语:

Drawing pictures will be fun.画画会是很有意思的。

Smoking may cause cancer.吸烟可能致癌。

Running is my favorite sport. 跑步是我最喜欢的运动。

Meeting you has been a great pleasure.见到你非常高兴。

Talking mends no holes. 空谈无济于事。(谚)

  • 由先行词it引起的句子(作主语的动名词移到句子后部):

It’s no use doing that.这样做没有用。

It’s no good waiting here. 在这里等没有好处。

It’s nice talking you. 和你谈话很高兴。

It’s a waste of time arguing about it. 辩论这事是浪费时间。

  • 由there is no引起的句子:

There is no joking about such matters. 这种事开不得玩笑。

There is no knowing what will happen next. 没法知道以后将发生什么事。

There was no telling what he was going to do. 没法判断他会怎样干。

There was no arguing with her.没法和她争辩。

动名词和不定式都可用作主语和表语。一般说来表示一般行为时多用动名词,表示具体某次动作时多用不定式:

Smoking is prohibited 禁止吸烟。

It isn’t good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体不好。

Their job is building houses.他们的工作是盖房予。

Our task now is to increase food production我们现在的任务是增产粮食。

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最后编辑于:2022/1/18 拔丝英语网

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