从一篇语法填空说英语教学语法观—以语言运用为导向的“形式–意义–使用”三维动态语法观

引言:
新课标所倡导的英语教学语法观,是以语言运用为导向的“形式--意义--使用”三维动态语法观。在语言中,语音、词汇、语法、语篇和语用知识总是交织在一起,成为语篇意义建构的最重要基础。语法参与传递语篇的基本意义,语法形式的选择取决于具体语境中所表达的语用意义。《普通高中英语课程标准(2017年版)》
下面,请大家思考,如何使用州市2020-2021学年下期高二年级英语学科期末试卷中的语法填空题,分析设空处的考点设置和考查方向,结合新课标提出的以语言运用为导向的“形式--意义--使用”三维动态语法观,透析命题意图,剖析学情考项,洞悉命题趋势,把控命题规律,设计教学方式,减轻学业负担,达成课堂高效。
 
【案例剖析】
第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)
阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式,并将答案填写在答题卡相应的位置上。
The Nations Younger Sister, Zhang Zifeng, 61 (grow) into a big sister. As a child star, she has played many impressive roles. For example, at age 8, she played young Fang Deng in After Shock. In one scene, she 62 (trap) under the ruins with her eyes full of fear and desperation, which deeply touched 63 audience.
Zhang Zifeng mostly plays a daughter or a little sister, but this time, she shoulders heavy responsibilities in Sister. Released on April 2, the film tells the story of a girl, An Ran (played by Zhang Zifeng), 64 faces a choice between pursuing (追求her own dream and raising her younger brother after their parents die in a car crash.
When the filming began, Zhang Zifeng was only 18. It was difficult 65 (connect) herself emotionally with An Ran, a 24-year-old complex female character who is not only a daughter, but also a big sister, girlfriend and niece.
For this role, Zhang Zifeng cut her long hair, learned the Sichuan dialect and 66 (experience) daily work as a nurse for a period of time. 67   (absorb) in the character, Zhang Zifeng performed vividly. Her comprehension of acting is far 68 her age, said Yin Ruoxin, director of the film. In one scene, An Ran watches her sleeping brother after finishing work. Zhang Zifeng 69 (natural) touches her brothers eyebrows and then hers. This move really surprised me, the director said. At that moment, I believed she was exactly An Ran.
  70   (expectation)are high for the future of this promising 19-year-old actress.
【参考答案】
61. has grown 62. is trapped 63. the 64. who 65. to connect 66. experienced 67. Absorbed 68. beyond 69. naturally 70. Expectations
 
【我的思考】
1. 设空处61考查的是现在完成时的用法,但是该句却没有提供明显的时间状语,需要学生在理解现在完成时使用原则及意义的情况下,结合语篇上下文语境和意义进行分析,在正确理解意义的情况下,才能作出合理判断和选择。
 
2. 设空处62考查的是一般现在时的被动结构,但是很多学生却会误判使用一般过去时的被动结构。出错的主要原因就是做题时“只见树木,未见森林”,只是关注了上下句而忽略了语篇,没有在主题意义的引领下,进行整体把控和分析,忽视了下文中的形似语境的照应和提示,误用时态。
 
所以,在具体日常教学中,教师应重视在语境呈现新的语法知识,在语境中指导学生观察所学语法项目的使用场合、表达形式、基本意义和语用功能,并通过课内外和信息化环境下的练习和活动,巩固所学语法知识,在语境中帮助学生学会应用语法知识理解和表达意义,引导学生不断加强准确、恰当、得体地使用语言形式的意识;在练习和活动的选择和设计上,教师应根据学生的实际需求,围绕“形式--意义--使用”采用和设计不同类型的学习实践活动,以既有层次又强调整合的多样的多种教学活动来引导学生发展英语语法意识和能力。《普通高中英语课程标准(2017年版)》
 
【案例求同】
请分析2019年全国乙卷高考真题语法填空设空处的考点设置和考查方向,剖析与上述案例中相关考点的设置是否有相似之处,思考在日常教学中如何在语言运用为导向的“形式--意义--使用”三维动态语法观引领下,设计教学活动,达成深度学习。
 
第二节(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)
阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式,并将答案填写在答题卡相应的位置上。(2019年全国乙卷高考真题)
The polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and some big land masses as far south as Newfoundland. While they are rare north of 88°, there is evidence___61___ they range all the way across the Arctic, and as far south as James Bay in Canada. It is difficult to figure out a global population of polar bears as much of the range has been ___62___(poor) studied; however, biologists calculate that there are about 20,000-25,000 polar bears worldwide.
Modern methods ___63___ tracking polar bear populations have been employed only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive ___64___(perform) consistently over a large area. In recent years some Inuit people in Nunavut___65___(report) increases in bear sightings around human settlements, leading to a ___66___(believe)that populations are increasing. Scientists have responded by ___67___(note) that hungry bears may be congregating(聚集) around human settlements, leading to the illusion(错觉) that populations are___68___(high) than they actually are. Of___69___ nineteen recognized polar bear subpopulations, three are declining, six____70____(be) stable, one is increasing, and nine lack enough data.
【参考答案】
61. that 62. poorly 63. of/for 64. to perform 65. have reported 66. belief 67.noting 68. higher 69. the 70. are

原文始发于(谷哥说英语):从一篇语法填空说英语教学语法观—以语言运用为导向的“形式--意义--使用”三维动态语法观