报刊精读:《华盛顿邮报》如何看前波音首席试飞员被指控欺诈?

据美国司法部网站14日消息,波音公司一名前首席技术飞行员被指控犯有欺诈罪,他在该公司737 MAX飞机的评估中欺骗了联邦监管机构,对机构保护乘客安全的努力造成阻碍,为波音公司省下了数千万美元资金。而波音737 MAX曾在2018年10月至2019年3月五个月内接连发生两起致命的坠机事故,导致346人死亡,引发了737 MAX系列飞机全球停飞。

今天这期内容选自The Washington Post 题为“Former Boeing chief test pilot indicted for fraud over 737 Max crashes”的报道,文中详细介绍了该事件的发生经过,同时引述了相关权威机构人士的发言,对此事件进行评述。本期内容节选了三个部分让大家有一个大致的了解。

事件简述

翻译原文:

A former chief test pilot for Boeing has been charged with fraud for allegedly deceiving federal authorities about a part of the flight controls on 737 Max airplanes, a model that led to horrific crashes in 2018 and 2019 that killed hundreds of people.

每日双语Law参考译文:

据称,波音前首席试飞员向联邦航空监管机构提供了关于波音 737 Max飞行控制新部分的虚假信息,他因此被控欺。而就是737 Max机型曾发生了两起可怕的坠机事故,一个发生在2018年,一个发生在2019年,有几百人丧命。

句子分析:

A former chief test pilot for Boeing has been charged with fraud是主句,for+doing的结构和前面主句构成因果逻辑,a model是737 Max airplanes的同位语,第一个that引导定语修饰model,第二个that引导定语从句修饰horrific crashes。

词汇解析:

1. Deceive表示“to make sb believe sth that is not true 欺骗;蒙骗;诓骗”,相当于cheat,常见搭配是~ sb (into doing sth),如:

• Her husband had been deceiving her for years. 她丈夫多年来一直在欺骗她。

• She deceived him into handing over all his savings. 她把他所有的积蓄都骗了出来。

Deceive还可表示“to make sb have a wrong idea about sb/sth 使人误信;误导”,相当于mislead,如:

• Unless my eyes deceive me, that's his wife. 

如果我没有看错的话,那是他的妻子。

积累几个Deceive的短语:

do the deceive 达到理想的结果;做成功

deceive oneself 自欺;骗自己

2. Fraud表示“the crime of cheating sb in order to get money or goods illegally 欺诈罪;欺骗罪”,多用作不可数名词,如:He was jailed for two years for fraud and deception. 他因诈骗与欺诈被监禁了两年。

Fraud还可表示“something or someone that deceives people in a way that is illegal or dishonest. 骗人的东西; 骗子”,是一个可数名词,如:He's a fraud and a cheat. 他是一个骗子。

Fraud的近义词有deception, 其动词形式是defraud。

3. Crash在这里表示“an accident in which a vehicle hits sth, for example another vehicle, usually causing damage and often injuring or killing the passengers 撞车;碰撞;相撞”,如:

•A girl was killed yesterday in a crash involving a stolen car. 昨天有一女孩在一桩涉及窃车的撞车事故中丧生。

• a car/plane crash 汽车撞车事故;飞机失事

△看看几个同义词辨析:crash / slam / collide / smash / wreck

以上各词均含碰撞、撞击之义,尤指撞车

1)crash (rather informal )

to hit an object or another vehicle, causing damage; to make a vehicle do this 指(使)物体或交通工具碰撞或撞击:

• I was terrified that the plane would crash. 

飞机会失事把我吓坏了。

2)slam (sth) into/against sb/sth

to crash into sth with a lot of force; to make sth do this 指(使)重重地撞上:

• The car skidded and slammed into a tree. 

汽车打滑,重重地撞到树上。

3)collide

( rather formal ) (of two vehicles or people) to crash into each other; (of a vehicle or person) to crash into sb/sth else 指交通工具或人碰撞、相撞或撞上:

• The car and the van collided head-on in thick fog. 那辆小轿车和货车在浓雾中迎面相撞。

4)smash

( rather informal ) to crash into sth with a lot of force; to make sth do this; to crash a car 指(使)猛烈撞击、猛烈碰撞或撞车:

• Ramraiders smashed a stolen car through the shop window. 飙车抢劫者驾着偷来的汽车撞破商店橱窗。

用crash、slam还是smash?

crash尤指交通工具碰撞,可不与介词连用:

• We're going to crash, aren't we? 

我们要坠毁了,是不是?

slam和smash表示此义时总是与介词连用

两词均可用于除交通工具外的范围更广的事物。crash与介词连用也可用于其他事物:

• He crashed down the telephone receiver.

他砰的一声将电话听筒摔下来。

5)wreck

to crash a vehicle and damage it so badly that it is not worth repairing 指使交通工具撞坏或毁坏

注意:crash还能用作形容词,表示“involving hard work or a lot of effort over a short period of time in order to achieve quick results 应急的;速成的”如:

• a crash course in computer programming 

计算机编程速成课程

• a crash diet 

快速减肥规定饮食

翻译点拨:

1. 句子较长,先翻译背景等细节信息,如A former chief test pilot for Boeing has been charged with fraud for allegedly deceiving federal authorities about a part of the flight controls on 737 Max airplanes中先译for后的部分;

2. 同位语从句可选择单独成句,增译被修饰词,如a model that led to horrific crashes in 2018 and 2019 that killed hundreds of people;

3. 适当变译,让表述更加通顺,如a model that led to horrific crashes in 2018 and 2019 that killed hundreds of people.直译为“该模型导致了2018年和2019年的可怕撞车事故,导致数百人死亡”,可以发现有很浓重的翻译腔,故可以进行一定的改变,按照中文表达习惯译出,即“而就是737 Max机型曾发生了两起可怕的坠机事故,一个发生在2018年,一个发生在2019年,有几百人丧命”。

事件详情

翻译原文:

“In an attempt to save Boeing money, Forkner allegedly withheld critical information from regulators,” said Chad E. Meacham, acting U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Texas. “His callous choice to mislead the FAA hampered the agency’s ability to protect the flying public and left pilots in the lurch, lacking information about certain 737 MAX flight controls.”

每日双语Law参考译文:

美国德克萨斯州北部地区联邦检察官查德·E·米查姆表示:“据称,为了节省波音公司资金,福克纳向监管机构隐瞒了关键信息。因为他冷酷无情的隐瞒之举,联邦航空局(FAA)没有得到某些有关737 MAX飞行控制系统的信息,对航空局造成误导,阻碍了该局保护飞行中乘客的行动,也让飞行员陷入困境。”

句子分析:

本段是said Chad E. Meacham是主干部分的倒装,正确顺序是Chad E. Meacham said+两个引述的句子,acting U.S. Attorney for the Northern District of Texas是修饰Chad E. Meacham作伴随状语;

第一个引述部分中In an attempt to save Boeing money作目的状语;第二个引述部分中His callous choice是主语,不定式to mislead the FAA hampered the agency’s ability to protect the flying public and left pilots in the lurch修饰choice,lacking information about certain 737 MAX flight controls是句子的伴随状语。

词汇解析:

1. In an attempt to表示“尝试;试图”,attempt即可作名词,又可作动词,作名词时常见的搭配有:

1)~ to do sth;~ at sth/at doing sth;如:

• Two factories were closed in an attempt to cut costs. 为削减费用,关闭了两家工厂。

• They made no attempt to escape. 

他们没有企图逃跑。

• I passed my driving test at the first attempt . 

我考汽车驾驶执照一次就通过了。

• The couple made an unsuccessful attempt at a compromise. 这对夫妇试图和解但没有成功。

2)~ on sth,如:

• His attempt on the world land speed record. 

他为创造陆上速度世界纪录所作的尝试。

3)~ on sb/sb's life,如:

•Someone has made an attempt on the President's life . 有人企图刺杀总统。

2. Withhold表示“to refuse to give sth to sb 拒绝给;不给”,相当于keep back;hold back;prevent;stop,常见用法是~ sth from sb/sth,如:

• She was accused of withholding information from the police. 她被指控对警方知情不报。

3. act在柯林斯中的释义是someone or something acts as a particular thing, they have that role or function. 担任;常见搭配是~ as/like sth,如:Among his other duties, he acted both as the ship's surgeon and as chaplain for the men. 另外,他兼任船上的外科医生以及船员们的牧师。

Act做名词时,在法律英语中常表示a law that has been passed by a parliament (议会通过的)法案,法令;如:

• an Act of Congress 

国会法案

• the Higher Education Act 2002 

2002年颁布的高等教育法

4. Callous表示“not caring about other people's feelings or suffering 冷酷无情的;无同情心的;冷漠的”,相当于cruel;unfeeling;ruthless;如:

• a callous killer/attitude/act 

冷血杀手;漠不关心的态度;冷酷的行为

• a callous disregard for the feelings of others 对他人感情的漠视

5. Hamper表示“to prevent sb from easily doing or achieving sth 妨碍;阻止;阻碍”,如:The bad weather hampered rescue operations. 恶劣的天气阻碍了救助行动。

用作名词时表示“a large basket with a lid, especially one used to carry food in (尤指用于盛食物的)带盖大篮子”,如:a picnic hamper 野餐篮

还可表示“a box or package containing food, sent as a gift (作为礼品的)盒装食物,袋装食物”,如:a Christmas hamper 圣诞礼品盒

翻译点拨:

1. 英文中的引述部分,有时会分开,中间描述说话者,译成中文时,可以进行改变,把表述者提到最前面,然后合并引述部分,以此符合中文引述的特点;

2. 显化一些关键逻辑,His callous choice to mislead可以看出这暗含一个“导致”的因果关系,故翻译时将其显化,可以让译文更清晰,明确话语层次;

3. 调整语序,让译文逻辑更加清晰,如:lacking information about certain 737 MAX flight controls虽然放在原文最后,但是根据上文信息,可以调整至“His callous choice to mislead”后,然后再译出其他的分支部分。

官方声明

翻译原文:

①Kenneth A. Polite Jr., the head of the Justice Department’s criminal division, said in a statement that Forkner “allegedly abused his position of trust by intentionally withholding critical information about MCAS during the FAA evaluation and certification of the 737 MAX and from Boeing’s U.S. based airline customers. ②In doing so, he deprived airlines and pilots from knowing crucial information about an important part of the airplane’s flight controls.”

每日双语Law参考译文:

美国司法部刑事部门部长肯尼思·A ·普利特尔在一份声明中称:“他滥用职权,特意在FAA评估和737 MAX认证时,隐瞒机动特性增强系统(MCAS)的关键信息,欺骗波音的美国航空公司客户,从而导致了航空公司和飞行员缺失飞机飞行控制重要部分的关键信息。”

句子分析:

本段分为两句,①的主要部分是Kenneth A. Polite Jr. said in a statement,that+引述部分是statement的同位语从句;Forkner allegedly abused his position of trust是同位语从句中的主干部分;by和from引导的两个并列的结构分别修饰allegedly abused his position of trust;②In doing so指代前面引述部分的行为。

词汇解析:

1. criminal division 表示“刑事部门”

Criminal作形容词时,常表示“connected with or involving crime犯罪的;犯法的;涉及犯罪的”以及“connected to the laws that deal with crime 刑法的;刑事的”(civil:民事的),如:

• criminal offences/behaviour 刑事犯罪;犯罪行为

• criminal damage (= the crime of damaging sb's property deliberately) 刑事损害

• criminal negligence (= the illegal act of sb failing to do sth that they should do, with the result that sb else is harmed) 过失犯罪

• criminal law 刑法

• the criminal justice system 刑事审判制度

• a criminal lawyer 刑事诉讼律师

• to bring criminal charges against sb 对某人提起刑事诉讼

Criminal作形容词还能表示“morally wrong 道德上错误的;不道德的”,如:This is a criminal waste of resources. 这是一种浪费资源的可耻行为。

Criminal还能做名词,表示“a person who commits a crime 罪犯”。

Division常见意思是“a disagreement or difference in opinion, way of life, etc., especially between members of a society or an organization 分歧;不和;差异(Division in/within sth或是Division between A and B)”和“the process or result of dividing into separate parts; the process or result of dividing sth or sharing it out 分开;分隔;分配;(分出来的)部分”,在本报道指“a group of departments whose work is done in the same place or is connected with similar tasks. 部门”,如:the company's sales division 公司销售部

2. Abused one’s position of trust表示“滥用职权”,相似意义的短语还有:power abuse/ abuse of power.;misuse of authority;如:He was arrested on charges of corruption and abuse of power. 他因被控贪污腐化和滥用职权而遭逮捕。

3. deprive…from/of… 剥夺;使丧失

Deprive表示“to prevent sb from having or doing sth, especially sth important 剥夺;使丧失;使不能享有”,虽原报道中是与from搭配,但是其常见的搭配是Deprive sb/sth of sth,如:

• They were imprisoned and deprived of their basic rights. 他们遭到监禁并被剥夺了基本权利。

• Why should you deprive yourself of such simple pleasures? 你为什么连这种简单的娱乐也不让自己享受一下呢?

Deprive可以相当于expropriate和strip;strip常见的搭配是strip of sth,但是要注意区分a strip of (一条)和strip of sth (剥夺);

另外积累几个“剥夺”的词和短语:

deprival of civil right; disfranchisement 

剥夺公民权

denaturalize

剥夺国籍

写作积累:

In doing so在写作中常常用来替换前面已经提到的行为和事件,既地道,又使语言更加简洁,还有很多这种类似的表达,如:in this sense(从这个意义上来说);in such case(在这种情况下)等,在写作中要灵活使用。

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