剑桥词典公布2021年度词汇:Perseverance

去年,剑桥词典公布2020年度词汇:Quarantine.

 

近日,剑桥词典(Cambridge Dictionary)公布了2021年度词汇:Perseverance(毅力;韧性;不屈不挠,坚持不懈)。

 

Perseverance这一词,剑桥词典官方给出的释义为:continued effort to do or achieve something, even when this is difficult or takes a long time. 指的是即使很困难或需要很长时间,仍持续努力做某事或达成某事

UK  /ˌpɜː.sɪˈvɪə.rəns/
US  /ˌpɝː.səˈvɪr.əns/

无注释原文:

‘PERSEVERANCE’ NAMED CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY’S WORD OF THE YEAR

The Independent

Cambridge Dictionary’s word of the year for 2021 has been revealed as “perseverance”.

The word was inspired by Nasa’s mission to Mars, as data showed that users across the globe searched for the word online more than 243,000 times throughout the year.

The dictionary found there was a surge in searches for the meaning of “perseverance” between 18 and 24 February, after Nasa’s Perseverance Rover landed on Mars.

“Perseverance” is defined in the Cambridge Dictionary as a “continued effort to do or achieve something, even when this is difficult or takes a long time”.

The word is “almost always a positive word that expresses our admiration for people who keep going in difficult situations”, wrote the editors.

They added that people had shown the meaning of the word “in the face of challenges and disruption to our lives from Covid-19 and other problems”.

Wendalyn Nichols, Cambridge Dictionary publishing manager, said it “made sense” that searches for the word spiked after the descent of the Mars Rover.

“Cambridge Dictionary is the top website in the world for learners of English, and perseverance is not a common word for students of English to have in their vocabulary," she said.

"We often see spikes in look-ups of words associated with current events when those words are less familiar."

She said editors felt it was an appropriate word for the year, given the challenges of 2021.

"Just as it takes perseverance to land a rover on Mars, it takes perseverance to face the challenges and disruption to our lives from Covid-19, climate disasters, political instability and conflict," said Nichols.

"We appreciated that connection, and we think Cambridge Dictionary users do, too."

Other words that can be used as synonyms for “perseverance” include “determination”, “persistence”, “doggedness”, “tenacity”, “resolve”, and “will”.

Nasa’s Perseverance Rover is on a mission as part of the Mars Exploration Programme, a long-term robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Its goal is to search for signs of habitable conditions on Mars but also for signs of life.

Last year, Cambridge Dictionary named “quarantine” as word of the year, after it became one of the most highly searched for words online.

 

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注:中文文本为机器翻译仅供参考,并非一一对应

含注释全文:

 

‘PERSEVERANCE’ NAMED CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY’S WORD OF THE YEAR

The Independent

Cambridge Dictionary's word of the year for 2021 has been revealed as “perseverance”.

 

《剑桥词典》公布2021年度词汇为“Perseverance”(毅力)。

 

reveal

表示“揭露;泄露;透露”,英文解释为“to make known or show something that is surprising or that was previously secre”举个🌰:

He was jailed for revealing secrets to the Russians.

他因为向俄国人泄密而被监禁。

 

 

The word was inspired by Nasa's mission to Mars, as data showed that users across the globe searched for the word online more than 243,000 times throughout the year.

 

这个词的入选得益于美国国家航空航天局(NASA)的火星任务,因为数据显示,全球用户全年在网上搜索这个词的次数超过了24.3万次。

剑桥词典公布2021年度词汇:Perseverance

The dictionary found there was a surge in searches for the meaning of “perseverance” between 18 and 24 February, after Nasa's Perseverance Rover landed on Mars.

 

该词典发现,2月18日至24日期间,在美国国家航空航天局的毅力号漫游车登陆火星后,对“Perseverance”一词含义的搜索量激增。

 

surge

1)作动词,表示“急剧上升;飞涨;剧增”,英文解释为“If something surges, it increases suddenly and greatly, after being steady or developing only slowly.”举个🌰:

The company's profits have surged.

公司的利润激增。

2)作名词,表示“剧增”,英文解释为“A surge is a sudden large increase in something that has previously been steady, or has only increased or developed slowly.”举个🌰:

An unexpected surge in electrical power caused the computer to crash.

突然出现的电压剧增导致电脑死机。

🎬电影《雷神2:黑暗世界》(Thor: The Dark World)中的台词提到:But she will not survive the amount of energy surging within her. 但她体内涌动的能量太大 她撑不住的。

剑桥词典公布2021年度词汇:Perseverance

rover

rover常见意思是“流浪者;漫游者”(a person who roves; wanderer),此处rover的英文解释为“a vehicle for exploring the surface of an extraterrestrial body (as the moon or Mars)”,即指部署在火星/月球上的探测器,即火星车/月球车,此前在「嗯,用不了多久...」一文中就提到美国的火星探测车(亦称为机遇号/机会号/火星探测漫游者-B,MER-B)因火星尘暴与地球“失联”3个多月时就这么表达:An American rover called Opportunity stopped working six months ago in a dust storm, but may revive if wind blows the dust off its solar panels.

📍此外,我们常听说的汽车品牌“路虎”的英文就是“Land Rover”。

剑桥词典公布2021年度词汇:Perseverance

Land Rover is a luxury car brand that specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles, owned by British multinational car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which has been owned by India's Tata Motors since 2008.(Wikipedia)

路虎是英国的全地形车和运动型多用途车品牌,隶属于捷豹路虎,总部位于英国考文垂怀特利(Whitley)。

 

“Perseverance” is defined in the Cambridge Dictionary as a “continued effort to do or achieve something, even when this is difficult or takes a long time”.

 

《剑桥词典》将“Perseverance”一词定义为“持续努力做某事或实现某事,即使很困难或需要很长时间”。

剑桥词典公布2021年度词汇:Perseverance
Words occurring with perseverance.
 
怎么看上图?Modifiers include adjectives directly before the noun, as in stubborn perseverance, and nouns that are used before perseverance in a list preceded by only a comma, such as dignity, perseverance, and . . . overlap in circles across sections is due to the limitations of the graph size, so in order for the bubbles to accurately display frequency of use with perseverance, words that belong to a given pattern are shown in pink, green, blue, or yellow.

The word is “almost always a positive word that expresses our admiration for people who keep going in difficult situations”, wrote the editors.

 

辑们写道,这个词“通常是一个积极的词,表达了我们对那些在困难情况下坚持下去的人的钦佩之情”。

 

They added that people had shown the meaning of the word “in the face of challenges and disruption to our lives from Covid-19 and other problems”.

 

他们补充说,人们“在面对新冠病毒肺炎和其他问题对我们的生活造成的挑战和破坏时”展现出了这个词的含义。

Wendalyn Nichols, Cambridge Dictionary publishing manager, said it “made sense” that searches for the word spiked after the descent of the Mars Rover.

《剑桥词典》出版经理温达琳·尼科尔斯(Wendalyn Nichols)表示,火星探测器着陆后,这个词的搜索量激增是“有道理的”。

 

spike

在剑桥词典公布2020年度词汇:Quarantine中同样出现了这个词,1)作名词,可以理解为“峰值”或者“激增;猛增;急升”,英文解释为“a sharp increase in the magnitude or concentration of something”,如:a spike in oil prices 油价的急剧上涨。

2)也可以作动词,同样表示“激增”,英文解释为“if the number or rate of something spikes, it increases quickly and by a large amount ”举个🌰:

New orders have spiked in the last two years.

新订单在过去两年里激增。

 

descent

表示“下降,下落;下沉”,英文解释为“a movement down”,举个🌰:

The plane began (to make) its final descent into the airport.

飞机开始(做)最终下降,准备在机场着陆。

📍descent作名词还有“血缘关系,家族关系;祖先;出身,血统”的意思,英文解释为“the state or fact of being related to a particular person or group of people who lived in the past”,如:of Asian descent 亚裔,举个🌰:

She's a woman of mixed/French descent. 她是一个混血/法裔女人。

📍还可以表示“不期而至,突然到达”,英文解释为“an occasion when a group of people arrive somewhere, usually suddenly or unexpectedly”,举个🌰:

We weren't prepared for the descent of thousands of journalists on the town.

我们没想到数千名记者会突然来到镇上。

 

 

“Cambridge Dictionary is the top website in the world for learners of English, and perseverance is not a common word for students of English to have in their vocabulary," she said.

 

她说:“剑桥词典是世界上顶级的英语学习网站,而‘Perseverance’一词并不是英语学习者词汇中常见的一个词。”

"We often see spikes in look-ups of words associated with current events when those words are less familiar."

 

“我们经常看到与时事有关的单词的搜索量激增,而这些单词却不那么熟悉。”

She said editors felt it was an appropriate word for the year, given the challenges of 2021.

她说,鉴于2021年的挑战,编辑们认为这是一个适合今年的词。

"Just as it takes perseverance to land a rover on Mars, it takes perseverance to face the challenges and disruption to our lives from Covid-19, climate disasters, political instability and conflict," said Nichols.

 

“正如漫游车登陆火星需要‘坚持不懈’一样,面对来自新冠病毒肺炎、气候灾难、政治不稳定和冲突对我们生活的挑战和破坏也需要持不懈,”尼科尔斯说。

"We appreciated that connection, and we think Cambridge Dictionary users do, too."

 

“我们很欣赏这种联系,我们认为剑桥词典的用户也是如此。”

Other words that can be used as synonyms for “perseverance” include “determination”, “persistence”, “doggedness”, “tenacity”, “resolve”, and “will”.

 

Perseverance”的同义词包括“determination”, “persistence”, “doggedness”, “tenacity”, “resolve”和“will”等等。

 

近义词

 

📍Determination表示“决心;毅力”,英文解释为“the ability to continue trying to do something, although it is very difficult”举个🌰:

You can't help but admire her determination to succeed.

她有很大的决心获得成功,这一点让人非常钦佩。

 

📍Persistence表示“持续存在;坚持不懈,执意”,英文解释为“the fact that someone or something persists举个🌰:

Her persistence and enthusiasm have helped the group to achieve its success.

她的坚持不懈和极大热情帮助该小组获得了成功。

 

📍Doggedness /ˈdɔːɡɪdnəs/表示“顽强;坚持不懈”,英文解释为“great determination to do something, even if it is very difficult”举个🌰:

The team's doggedness was rewarded with a last-minute goal.

球队的顽强拼搏得到了回报,在最后一分钟进了球。

 

📍Tenacity /təˈnæsəti/表示“坚韧;坚毅”,英文解释为“If you have tenacity, you are very determined and do not give up easily.”

🌰二〇二一年新年贺词中提到“顽强不屈的坚守”时,用的也是tenacity,原句:holding posts with tenacity. 其中posts指的是岗位,(坚守)岗位。

📍Resolve表示“决心;坚定的信念”,英文解释为“strong determination”如:to weaken/strengthen/test someone's resolve 削弱/增强/考验某人的决心。

 

📍Will作名词,表示“意志;毅力;决心”,英文解释为“the mental power used to control and direct your thoughts and actions, or a determination to do something, despite any difficulties or opposition举个🌰:

From an early age she had a very strong will.

从很小时起,她就有坚强的意志。

 

 

Nasa's Perseverance Rover is on a mission as part of the Mars Exploration Programme, a long-term robotic exploration of the Red Planet. Its goal is to search for signs of habitable conditions on Mars but also for signs of life.

 

作为火星探测计划(一项对火星的长期机器人探索计划)的一部分,美国国家航空航天局的坚毅号探测器正在执行任务。它的目标是寻找火星上适合居住的条件的迹象,同时也在寻找生命的迹象。

 

habitable

 

表示“适于居住的,可以居住的”,英文解释为“providing conditions that are good enough to live in or on举个🌰:

A lot of improvements would have to be made before the building was habitable.

这座大楼在可以入住之前还需要进行大量的修缮工作。

 

 

Last year, Cambridge Dictionary named “quarantine” as word of the year, after it became one of the most highly searched for words online.

 

去年,剑桥词典将“quarantine”(隔离)评为年度词汇,因为它成为网上搜索量最高的词汇之一。

 

quarantine

剑桥词典2020年度词汇:quarantine /ˈkwɒrənˌtiːn/.

1)作名词,表示“隔离,检疫”,英文解释为“If a person or animal is in quarantine, they are being kept separate from other people or animals for a set period of time, usually because they have or may have a disease that could spread.举个🌰:

She was sent home and put in quarantine.

她被送回家实施隔离。

2)作动词,表示“对…进行隔离”,英文解释为“If people or animals are quarantined, they are stopped from having contact with other people or animals. If a place is quarantined, people and animals are prevented from entering or leaving it.举个🌰:

Dogs have to be quarantined for six months before they'll let them in.

狗必须被隔离6个月后他们才会放它们进来。

 

via LearnAndRecord