柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

今天,柯林斯词典(Collins Dictionary)公布了2021年度词汇:NFT(非同质化代币)。

NFT这一词全称为Non-Fungible Token,柯林斯词典官方给出的释义为:the unique digital identifier that records ownership of a digital asset which has entered the mainstream and seen millions spent on the most sought-after images and videos. 指非同质化代币,是用于表示数字资产的唯一加密货币令牌。

个代可以代表一个独特的数字资料(如画作、声音、视频、游戏中的项目或其他形式的创意作品像有形资产一样,可以买卖

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

此外,cheugy、climate anxiety、crypto、double-vaxxed、hybrid working、metaverse、neopronoun、pingdemic、Regencycore词汇,也被进入了2021年度热词榜单前十名。

 

无注释原文:

 

NFT beats cheugy to be Collins Dictionary’s word of the year

The Guardian

In a year that has seen the musician Grimes sell a collection of digital artworks for almost $6m (£4.4m), and the original photo behind the 2005 Disaster Girl meme go for $473,000 (£354,000), Collins Dictionary has made NFT its word of the year.

The abbreviation of non-fungible token has seen a “meteoric” rise in usage over the last year, said Collins, up 11,000% in the last year. Any digital creation can become an NFT, with the term referring to a certificate of ownership, registered on a blockchain, or digital ledger of transactions. The most valuable NFT to date is a collage by digital artist Beeple, which sold for £50.3m at Christie’s in March.

Collins defines NFT as “a unique digital certificate, registered in a blockchain, that is used to record ownership of an asset such as an artwork or a collectible”; its lexicographers, who monitor the 4.5bn-word Collins Corpus to choose their word of the year, said they went for NFT because it demonstrates a “unique technicolour collision of art, technology and commerce” that has “broken through the Covid noise” to become ubiquitous.

“It’s unusual for an abbreviation to experience such a meteoric rise in usage, but the data we have from the Collins Corpus reflects the remarkable ascendancy of the NFT in 2021,” said Collins Learning managing director Alex Beecroft. “NFTs seem to be everywhere, from the arts sections to the financial pages and in galleries and auction houses and across social media platforms. Whether the NFT will have a lasting influence is yet to be determined, but its sudden presence in conversations around the world makes it very clearly our word of the year.”

Last month the Oxford English Dictionary named vax as its word of the year, noting that in September usage of the word was up more than 72 times on the previous year.

NFT beat two other tech-based words on Collins’ shortlist of 10 words of the year: crypto, the short form of cryptocurrency, usage of which is up 468% year on year, according to Collins, and metaverse, a term coined by Neal Stephenson in his 1992 novel Snow Crash. Describing a three-dimensional virtual world – such as that planned by Meta, Mark Zuckerberg’s rebranded Facebook company – metaverse’s usage has increased 12-fold since 2020.

Other words and phrases in the running included the Covid-focused pingdemic, hybrid working and double-vaxxed, while climate anxiety also made the list, reflecting growing concerns about climate change.

Collins also noted a rise in the use of neopronoun, thanks to ongoing conversations over gender and the representation of trans and non-binary people; it defines the word as “a recently coined pronoun, especially one designed to avoid gender distinctions”.

Collins chose “lockdown” as its word of the year in 2020, and “climate strike” in 2019.

Collins’ 2021 Top 10 words

 

NFT (ˌɛnɛfˈtiː) abbreviation for

1 non-fungible token: a unique digital certificate, registered in a blockchain, that is used to record ownership of an asset such as an artwork or a collectible.

noun

2 an asset whose ownership is recorded by means of a non-fungible token: the artist sold the work as an NFT

cheugy (ˈtʃuːɡɪ) adjective, slang

no longer regarded as cool or fashionable

climate anxiety (ˈklaɪmət æŋˈzaɪɪtɪ) noun

a state of distress caused by concern about climate change

crypto (ˈkrɪptəʊ) noun, informal

short for cryptocurrency: a decentralised digital medium of exchange which is created, regulated and exchanged using cryptography and (usually) open-source software, and typically used for online purchases

double-vaxxed (ˌdʌbəlˈvækst) adjective, informal

having received two vaccinations against a disease. Also: double-jabbed

hybrid working (ˌhaɪbrɪd ˈwɜːkɪŋ) noun

the practice of alternating between different working environments, such as from home and in an office

metaverse (ˈmɛtəˌvɜːs) noun

a proposed version of the internet that incorporates three-dimensional virtual environments

neopronoun (ˌniːəʊˈprəʊˌnaʊn) noun

a recently coined pronoun, especially one designed to avoid gender distinctions

pingdemic (ˌpɪŋˈdɛmɪk) noun, informal

the large-scale notification of members of the public by a contact-tracing app

Regencycore (ˈriːdʒənsɪˌkɔː) noun

a style of dress inspired by clothes worn in high society during the Regency period (1811–20). Also called: Regency chic

 

- ◆ -

 

注:中文文本为机器翻译仅供参考,并非一一对应

含注释全文:

NFT beats cheugy to be Collins Dictionary's word of the year

The Guardian

In a year that has seen the musician Grimes sell a collection of digital artworks for almost $6m (£4.4m), and the original photo behind the 2005 Disaster Girl meme go for $473,000 (£354,000), Collins Dictionary has made NFT its word of the year.

在这一年里,歌手Grimes以近600万美元(440万英镑)的价格出售了一系列数字艺术品,2005年灾难女孩(Disaster Girl)表情包的原始照片以47.3万美元(35.4万英镑)的价格售出,柯林斯词典选择将NFT(非同质化代币)一词选为年度词汇。

 

cheugy

 

新词,用来指某人或某事没有那么酷,有点过时了,柯林斯词典官方解释为“no longer regarded as cool or fashionable”举个🌰:

She is so cheugy. She participates in TikTok trends when they are already weeks old.

 

Cheugy is a slang adjective mocking someone or something as “uncool”—they are out of touch with current trends or trying too hard to be trendy.

 

collection

熟词僻义,1)表示“作品集”,英文解释为“a group of poems, stories or pieces of music published together as one book or disc”如:a collection of stories by women writers 女作家小说集。

 

2)表示“(常指同类的)收集物,收藏品”,英文解释为“a group of objects, often of the same sort, that have been collected”。

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

 

meme

meme (/ˈmiːm/ )是指在同一个文化氛围中,人与人之间传播的思想、行为或者风格,音译为媒母、米姆、谜米、弥母,又名模因、拟子等。

其实「meme」指的就是在网上迅速传播,流行起来的一些概念(或图像、视频等)等东西,可以直接解释成我们常说「梗」、「段子」、表情包」,词典中定义为:a type of behaviour that is passed from one member of a group to another, not in the genesbut by another means such as people copying it;举个🌰:

Take a look at the top ten internet memes for this past year.

看一下去年互联网上的十大梗。

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT
柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT
柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT
柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

The abbreviation of non-fungible token has seen a “meteoric” rise in usage over the last year, said Collins, up 11,000% in the last year. Any digital creation can become an NFT, with the term referring to a certificate of ownership, registered on a blockchain, or digital ledger of transactions. The most valuable NFT to date is a collage by digital artist Beeple, which sold for £50.3m at Christie's in March.

柯林斯词典表示,在过去的一年里,非同质化代币(non-fungible token)缩写NFT的使用出现了“疾速”增长,过去一年增长达11,000%。任何数字作品都可以成为NFT,该术语指的是所有权证明,登记在区块链或交易的数字账本上。迄今为止,最有价值的NFT是数字艺术家Beeple的一幅拼贴画,它在3月的佳士得拍卖会上以5030万英镑成交。

 

abbreviation

abbreviation /əˌbriːviˈeɪʃn/ 表示“略语;缩写词;缩写形式”,英文解释为“short form of a word, etc.”举个🌰:

What's the abbreviation for ‘LearnAndRecord’?

LearnAndRecord的缩写形式是什么?

 

fungible

 

fungible /ˈfʌndʒɪbəl/ 表示“易于(与同类或同价物品)交换(或交易)的”,英文解释为“easy to exchange or trade for something else of the same type and value”如:fungible assets 易于交易的资产。

 

token

表示“(某些机器中用以代替纸币的)代币,专用辅币”,英文解释为“a round metal or plastic disc that is used instead of money in some machines”

 

meteoric

meteoric /ˌmiːtɪˈɒrɪk/ 1)表示“迅速成功的;发展迅速的”,英文解释为“achieving success very quickly,如:a meteoric rise to fame 迅速成名,a meteoric career 迅速成功的事业,举个🌰:

The company has experienced meteoric growth.

公司经历了飞速增长。

 

2)表示“流星的”(relating to or caused by a meteor)。

 

register

表示“登记,注册,记录”,英文解释为“to put information, especially your name, into an official list or record举个🌰:

I registered the car in my name.

我把车登记在我的名下。

 

blockchain

 

表示“(信息技术)区块链”,英文解释为“a system used to make a digital record of all the occasions a cryptocurrency (= a digital currency such as bitcoin) is bought or sold, and that is constantly growing as more blocks are added”

 

ledger

 

ledger /ˈledʒər/表示“收支总账;分类账簿;分户账簿”,英文解释为“a book in which a bank, a business, etc. records the money it has paid and received”。

transaction

表示“交易”,英文解释为“an occasion when someone buys or sells something, or when money is exchanged or the activity of buying or selling something”。

 

collage

collage /kəˈlɑːʒ/ 表示“拼贴艺术;拼贴画”,英文解释为“the art of making a picture by sticking pieces of coloured paper, cloth, or photographs onto a surface; a picture that you make by doing this”。

 

 

Collins defines NFT as “a unique digital certificate, registered in a blockchain, that is used to record ownership of an asset such as an artwork or a collectible”; its lexicographers, who monitor the 4.5bn-word Collins Corpus to choose their word of the year, said they went for NFT because it demonstrates a “unique technicolour collision of art, technology and commerce” that has “broken through the Covid noise” to become ubiquitous.

柯林斯词典将NFT定义为“一种独特的数字证书,在区块链中登记,用于记录艺术品或收藏品等资产的所有权”;其词典编纂者,负责监测45亿词的柯林斯语料库以选择年度词汇,他们说选择NFT是因为它展示了“艺术、技术和商业独特又多彩的碰撞”,“突破了新冠疫情的阻碍”而变得无处不在。

 

lexicographer

lexicographer /ˌleksɪˈkɒɡrəfə(r)/ 表示“词典编纂者”,英文解释为“a person who writes and edits dictionaries”。

 

monitor

表示“监视;检查;跟踪调查”,英文解释为“to watch and check sth over a period of time in order to see how it develops, so that you can make any necessary changes举个🌰:

Each student's progress is closely monitored.

每一位同学的学习情况都受到密切的关注。

 

corpus

corpus /ˈkɔːpəs/ 表示“”,英文解释为“a collection of written or spoken material stored on a computer and used to find out how language is used”。

 

demonstrate

表示“显示;表明”,英文解释为“to show or make make something clear”举个🌰:

These numbers clearly demonstrate the size of the economic problem facing the country.

这些数字清楚表明了该国经济问题的严重程度。

 

technicolor

 

technicolor /ˈtɛknɪˌkʌlə/ 表示“色彩鲜艳的,艳丽多彩的”,英文解释为“having a lot of bright colours”

 

ubiquitous

ubiquitous表示“无所不在的”,英文解释为“If you describe something or someone as ubiquitous, you mean that they seem to be everywhere.”举个🌰:

Coffee shops are ubiquitous these days.

如今好像到处都是咖啡馆。

意思相近的一个形容词:

📍pervasive表示“到处存在的,到处弥漫着的,遍布的”,英文解释为“Something, especially something bad, that is pervasive is present or felt throughout a place or thing.如:the pervasive influence of mobile phones in daily life 手机在日常生活中无处不在的影响。

 

 

“It's unusual for an abbreviation to experience such a meteoric rise in usage, but the data we have from the Collins Corpus reflects the remarkable ascendancy of the NFT in 2021,” said Collins Learning managing director Alex Beecroft. “NFTs seem to be everywhere, from the arts sections to the financial pages and in galleries and auction houses and across social media platforms. Whether the NFT will have a lasting influence is yet to be determined, but its sudden presence in conversations around the world makes it very clearly our word of the year.

“一个缩写词的使用量出现如此迅速的增长是不寻常的,但我们从柯林斯语料库中获得的数据反映了NFT一词在2021年的显著上升势头,”柯林斯学习(Collins Learning)总经理亚历克斯·比克罗夫特(Alex Beecroft)说,“从艺术板块到金融板块,到画廊和拍卖行乃至整个社交媒体平台,NFT似乎无处不在。NFT是否会产生持久的影响还有待确定,但它突然出现在世界各地的对话中,这很明显是我们的年度词汇。”

 

reflect

1)表示“显示;反映;表达”,英文解释为“to show, express, or be a sign of something举个🌰:

The statistics reflect a change in people's spending habits.

这些统计数据显示出人们的消费习惯发生了变化。

1)表示“反射(光、热、声等);反映,映出(影像)”,英文解释为“If a surface reflects light, heat, sound, or an image, it sends the light, etc. back and does not absorb it.”举个🌰:

He saw himself reflected in the water/mirror/shop window.

他在水中/镜子里/商店橱窗玻璃上看到了自己的影像。

 

ascendancy

 

表示“权势显赫,处尊居显;优势,支配地位;影响”,英文解释为“a position of power, strength, or success”举个🌰:

Supporters of the proposal are currently in the ascendancy over its opponents (= are more powerful than them).

提案的支持者目前占据上风(压倒了反对者)。

 

auction house

 

表示“拍卖行”,英文解释为“a company whose business is selling things at auction”

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

 

Last month the Oxford English Dictionary named vax as its word of the year, noting that in September usage of the word was up more than 72 times on the previous year.

上个月,《牛津英语词典》将vax评为年度词汇,指出9月份该词的使用量比前一年增长了72倍以上。

 

vax

 

牛津词典公布2021年度词汇:Vax Vax /væks/ 可以作动词,也可以作名词,表示“(打)疫苗”。The Oxford Languages Dictionary defines vax as a vaccine or vaccination when used as a noun. As a verb, vax is defined as “vaccinate” or “treat (someone) with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease”.

NFT beat two other tech-based words on Collins' shortlist of 10 words of the year: crypto, the short form of cryptocurrency, usage of which is up 468% year on year, according to Collins, and metaverse, a term coined by Neal Stephenson in his 1992 novel Snow Crash. Describing a three-dimensional virtual world – such as that planned by Meta, Mark Zuckerberg's rebranded Facebook company – metaverse's usage has increased 12-fold since 2020.

在柯林斯词典的10个年度词汇候选名单中,NFT击败了另外两个科技类词汇:Crypto,即加密货币的简称,根据柯林斯的数据,其使用率同比增长了468%;metaverse,这是尼尔·斯蒂芬森(Neal Stephenson)在其1992年小说《雪崩》(Snow Crash)中创造的一个术语。描述一个三维的虚拟世界--比如马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)的Facebook公司改名后叫Meta--Metaverse的使用率自2020年以来增长了12倍。

 

shortlist

表示“最终候选名单,决选名单;入围名单”,英文解释为“a list of people who have been judged the most suitable for a job or prize, made from a longer list of people originally considered, and from which one person will be chosen举个🌰:

We've drawn up (= decided) a shortlist for the job.

我们已经确定了该职位的最终候选名单。

📍美式:short list是分开的。有shortlist就有longlist,意思就是“初选名单”(A long-list for something such as a job or a prize is a large group that has been chosen from all the people who applied for the job, or all the people or things that are competing for the prize. The successful ones from this group are chosen to go on the shortlist.

同时,两个词都可以作为动词,比如shortlist作动词,表示“把…列入入围名单举个🌰:

Candidates who are shortlisted for interview will be contacted by the end of the week.

入围参加面试的求职者将在周末以前得到通知。

 

cryptocurrency

cryptocurrency  /ˈkrɪptoʊkɜːrənsi/ 表示“(公共网络的,而非政府发行的)加密电子货币(使用加密法确保付款安全支付及收取)”,实际就是加密货币,英文解释为“a digital currency produced by a public network, rather than any government, that uses cryptography to make sure payments are sent and received safely”,如:cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin 诸如比特币一类的加密电子货币。

 

📍详见:鱿鱼币,从暴涨到跑路

metaverse

据维基百科,元宇宙,或称为后设宇宙、形上宇宙、元界、超感空间、虚空间,被用来描述一个未来持久化和去中心化的在线三维虚拟环境。此虚拟环境将可以通过虚拟现实眼镜、增强现实眼镜、手机、个人电脑和电子游戏机进入人造的虚拟世界。

The word metaverse is a portmanteau of the prefix "meta" (meaning "beyond") and "universe" and is typically used to describe the concept of a future iteration of the internet, made up of persistent, shared, 3D virtual spaces linked into a perceived virtual universe.

 

📍详见:元宇宙到底是什么?

coin

在凡尔赛文学是什么梗?文中,提到了网友构造了凡尔赛文学这个说法 Chinese netizens coined the term “Versailles literature”,其中coin作动词,熟词僻义,表示“创造(新词语)”,英文解释为“to invent a new word or phrase that other people then begin to use举个🌰:

He coined the term "LearnAndRecord".

他创造了LearnAndRecord这一说法。

📍coinage作名词,表示“新造的词(语);新词语的创造”,英文解释为“(the inventing of) a new word or phrase in a language”。

 

-fold

 

表示“由…部分组成;…倍”,英文解释为“having the stated number of parts, or multiplied by the stated number”如:threefold 3倍,举个🌰:

The problems are twofold - firstly, economic, and secondly, political.

这些问题是双重的:第一,经济上的;第二,政治上的。

 

 

Other words and phrases in the running included the Covid-focused pingdemic, hybrid working and double-vaxxed, while climate anxiety also made the list, reflecting growing concerns about climate change.

其他入选的单词和短语包括与新冠疫情相关的pingdemic、hybrid working(混合办公)和double-vaxxed接种两剂疫苗,而climate anxiety(气候焦虑)也上榜了,反映出人们对气候变化的担忧与日俱增。

 

in/out of the running

表示“有/没有希望获胜;有/没有成功的机会”,英文解释为“having/not having a reasonable chance of winning”。

 

pingdemic

 

ping+pandemic构成的新词,指的是在手机上收到英国国民保健署(National Health Service,NHS)通过新冠肺炎检测与追踪(NHS COVID-19)App发来的自我隔离通知

 

当手机收到消息时,会发出“叮”的提示音(ping),再加上新冠疫情,全球性流行病pandemic一词就组合成了这个新词。

 

柯林斯词典官方给该词的解释为:the large-scale notification of members of the public by a contact-tracing app.

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

Collins also noted a rise in the use of neopronoun, thanks to ongoing conversations over gender and the representation of trans and non-binary people; it defines the word as “a recently coined pronoun, especially one designed to avoid gender distinctions”.

柯林斯词典还注意到,由于正在进行的关于性别以及变性人和非二元人代表的对话,新代词(neopronoun)的使用有所增加;它将该词定义为“最近创造的代词,特别是旨在避免性别区分的代词”。

 

neopronoun

 

neo-表示“新的;新式的”(new; in a later form

 

pronoun表示“代词(代替名词或名词词组的单词)”(a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase, for example he , it , hers , me , them , etc.)

 

Neopronouns are a category of neologistic English third-person personal pronouns beyond "she", "he", and "they", as well as "one" and "it".

 

Neopronouns are preferred by some non-binary individuals, as they may feel that neopronouns provide more options to reflect their gender identity more accurately than any conventional pronoun.

 

non-binary

binary本身表示“二进制的”(The binary system expresses numbers using only the two digits 0 and 1. It is used especially in computing.)在计算机的世界里,处理的实际上都是0和1这两个数字。

此处binary表示“二元的;有两个不同部分的”,英文解释为“Binary describes something that has two different parts.


non-binary就是表示“非二元性別的”,英文解释为“having a gender identity (= feeling of being a particular gender) that is not simply male or female”. 也被广泛称作Genderqueer(性别酷儿),用来指称那些超越传统意义上对男性或女性的二元划分、不单纯属于男性或女性的自我性别认同。此前纽约时报的有一篇文章专门讲述了Nonbinary一词:

“Washington, D.C., schools are the latest, with a small change on the public school enrollment form for next year that some members of the L.G.B.T.Q. community regard as a big step forward: The term “nonbinary,” which refers to people who do not identify exclusively as male or female, will be included as a gender choice.”

“华盛顿特区的学校对明年的公立学校入学表格做出了一个小改动:“非二元性别的”——意指那些性别认同不单纯属于男性或女性的人,被加入到性别选择中。这是被一些L.G.B.T.Q.群体成员认为是一大进步的最新例子。”


 

Collins chose “lockdown” as its word of the year in 2020, and “climate strike” in 2019.

柯林斯词典选择了“lockdown”作为其2020年的年度词汇,以及“climate strike”作为2019年的年度词汇。

 

📍详见:

柯林斯词典公布2020年度词汇:Lockdown

柯林斯词典公布2019年度词汇:Climate strike

Collins’ 2021 Top 10 words

NFT (ˌɛnɛfˈtiː) abbreviation for

1 non-fungible token: a unique digital certificate, registered in a blockchain, that is used to record ownership of an asset such as an artwork or a collectible.

noun

2 an asset whose ownership is recorded by means of a non-fungible token: the artist sold the work as an NFT

cheugy (ˈtʃuːɡɪ) adjective, slang

no longer regarded as cool or fashionable

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

climate anxiety (ˈklaɪmət æŋˈzaɪɪtɪ) noun

a state of distress caused by concern about climate change

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

crypto (ˈkrɪptəʊ) noun, informal

short for cryptocurrency: a decentralised digital medium of exchange which is created, regulated and exchanged using cryptography and (usually) open-source software, and typically used for online purchases

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

double-vaxxed (ˌdʌbəlˈvækst) adjective, informal

having received two vaccinations against a disease. Also: double-jabbed

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

hybrid working (ˌhaɪbrɪd ˈwɜːkɪŋ) noun

the practice of alternating between different working environments, such as from home and in an office

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

metaverse (ˈmɛtəˌvɜːs) noun

a proposed version of the internet that incorporates three-dimensional virtual environments

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

neopronoun (ˌniːəʊˈprəʊˌnaʊn) noun

a recently coined pronoun, especially one designed to avoid gender distinctions

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

pingdemic (ˌpɪŋˈdɛmɪk) noun, informal

the large-scale notification of members of the public by a contact-tracing app

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

Regencycore (ˈriːdʒənsɪˌkɔː) noun

a style of dress inspired by clothes worn in high society during the Regency period (1811–20). Also called: Regency chic

 

柯林斯词典公布2021年度词汇:NFT

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