写作篇 | 2022高考英语备考书面表达之“变”出高分

 

2022高考英语备考书面表达之“变”出高分

无论是传统高考还是新高考都离不开应用文写作(书面表达)。根据高考英语评分原则和各档次给分范围及要求,阅卷老师评分时,应主要从内容、词汇语法和篇章结构三个方面去考虑,这就要求考生要注意使用词汇和语法结构的准确性、恰当性和多样性,同时,还要注意上下文的衔接和全文的连贯性。

据此,考生在做书面表达题时,除了要点齐全、字数达标、结构清晰和语法正确外,还必须在词汇、句式和语篇结构上作出变化,这样才会为自己的高考作文增加得分的亮点,从而获得高分。

下面结合高中英语教学经历来探讨书面表达应用文写作如何在“变”中谋高分。

 

一、词汇的变化

在英语写作中,考生如能在正确使用基本词汇的基础上,将普通词汇变化并升级为高级词汇,就能给文章增添色彩和画面感,大大提升文章的档次,从而获得高分。要做到准确使用高级词汇,考生应注意以下几个方面:

1.“语”众不同,避免人云亦云

在写作时,考生恰当地使用一些别人可能想不到的词汇或表达,会体现出自己的高水平,同时,也会给阅卷老师耳目一新的感觉。

(1) I believe that, with such an excellent friend around me, I will become better and better.

→ I have the confidence that, with such an excellent friend around me, I will become better and better.

我相信,身边有如此优秀的朋友,我会变得越来越好。

(2) As a student from China, I have been fond of Chinese painting.

→ As a student from China, I have been keen on Chinese painting.

作为来自中国的学生,我一直钟爱中国画。

(3) I am busy with my lessons now, for the College Entrance Examination, which is very important to me, is near.

→I am occupied with my lessons now, for the College Entrance Examination, which is of great importance to me, is around the corner (approaching).

我正忙于复习功课,因为对于我来说非常重要的高考即将来临。

 

2.更新换代(弃旧取新),避免重复

在写作时,考生应尽量避免重复使用相同的单词或短语,要尽量用贴切多样的词语来展示自己的水平,用新颖的词语代替陈旧的词语。用词不同,表达方式迥异,也是高级表达。

(1)There will be many activities to mark this unforgettable occasion including many matches.

→ There will be a wide range of activities to mark this unforgettable occasion including many matches.

为了纪念这个难忘的时刻,将开展许多活动包括很多比赛。

(2)Moreover, we will build a new stadium and with the stadium built,a wide range of sports events are able to be held.

→Moreover, we will build a new stadium and with the stadium set up,a wide range of sports events are able to be held.

此外,我們将建一座新的体育馆,随着体育馆的兴建,各种体育赛事就能举办。

 

3.单词和短语(词组),短语(词组)优先

当单词和短语表示同一个意思时,优先使用词组、短语、习语代替单词,这不仅能使文章更加生动,增加文采,而且也能展示出考生扎实的语言功底。

(1)First, needless to say, he is good at English.

→First and foremost/To begin(start)with,needless to say, he is good at English.首先,不必说,他擅长英语。

(2)Finally, he has a lot of life experience.

→Last but certainly not least, he has a lot of life experience.

最后,他生活经验丰富。

(3)Therefore, there is no need to worry about our studies—just relax and have a good rest.

→As a consequence (result) / In consequence, there is no need to worry about our studies—just relax and have a good rest.

因此,不必担心我们的学习,放松好好休息吧。

 

4. 多实少虚,避免空洞

在具备一定词汇量的条件下,考生使用具体的表达比泛泛而谈的内容更能引起读者的共鸣。例如,在描述一个具体的事物或人时,类似a nice /good man 的表达让人感觉很空洞,考生可以用有个性的、具体的词来描绘一个人,如kind/warm-hearted(好心的/热心肠的),easy-going(随和的),generous(慷慨/大方的)等。

(1)Last Sunday, our school held a 5km cross country running race, which attracted many good participants. 上周日,我们学校举行五千米越野赛跑,吸引许多好手参赛。

→Last Sunday, our school held a 5km cross country running race, which attracted many enthusiastic participants. 上周日,我们学校举行五千米越野赛跑,吸引众多热情参赛者。

(2) It is a very good film. 这是一部好电影。

→It is a very moving / touching / instructive / romantic / breath-taking film.这是一部感人/有教育意义/浪漫/伤心的电影。

二、句型的变化

在句型的变化上,考生尽量用较多的语法结构、各种复合句和特殊句式,实现表达多样化。高考评分标准中的“复杂结构的运用及较多的语法结构”就是指句子结构的复合性和句型的多样性。

不论是复杂结构的运用,如强调句、倒裝句等句型,含有名词性从句、定语从句或状语从句的复合句,还是较多的语法结构,如分词和不定式等非谓语动词以及独立主格结构的运用,都会增加文章的表达力度,提升文章的档次。

 

1. 学会使用光彩夺目、增加亮点的定语从句

定语从句(尤其是非限制性定语从句)的应用能有效地提升书面表达的档次,在写作中,如果考生能把两个简单句或并列句合并为一个含定语从句的复合句,就能为文章增加亮点。

(1)Based on an English text, our classmates and I have adapted it into a short play. It is about how money will change the attitude of people towards others.

→Based on an English text, our classmates and I have adapted it into a short play, which is about how money will change the attitude of people towards others.

根据一篇英语课文,我和同学们已将其改编成短剧,短剧的内容是钱如何改变人们对彼此之间的态度。

(2)In addition, whats puzzling us is that there are no emotional changes in our tone and pronunciation. Most of them sound dull.

→In addition, whats puzzling us is that there are no emotional changes in our tone and pronunciation, most of which sound dull.

此外,让我们迷惑的是,在语音和语调上没有情感变化,大多数听起来乏味。

2. 尽量使用丰富多彩、提升档次的名词性从句

名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,是英语写作常见的高级表达句式。

(1)There is no doubt that there are many things that I can learn from him.  毫无疑问,有很多东西我可以向他学习。

(2)Additionally, no one can deny (that) he gets along well with all our classmates. 此外,不可否认,他和我们班所有的同学相处得十分融洽。

(3)Though you didnt reply to me, the hesitation wearing on your face offered me a glimpse of what was going on in your mind. 尽管你没有回答我,但是你脸上的犹豫让我看出你心里想的是什么。

3. 不可忽视画龙点睛、吸引眼球的状语从句

在英语写作中,状语从句是经常用到的句型,它能起到“点睛”作用,让阅卷老师眼前一亮,对状语从句的灵活运用能使作文更具吸引力。

(1)When I come across the problems of learning in my study, my father will listen to me patiently and encourage me to overcome the difficulties bravely. 当我遇到学习上的问题,我的父亲会耐心倾听并鼓励我勇敢克服困难。

(2)She is so patient with each student that we all like her.她对每位学生都如此有耐心,以致我们都喜欢她。

(3)However difficult it was, no participants gave up halfway. 无论多么艰难,参赛者无人半途退赛。

4. 合理使用委婉动人的虚拟语气

虚拟语气句型在写作中属于高级句式,对它的合理使用能给文章增色添彩。

(1)I wish you could see him.但愿你能见到他。

(2)I would appreciate it if you could help us whenever and wherever it is convenient for you. 要是你无论何时何地能帮助我们,我们将感激不尽。

 

5. 灵活运用重点突出的强调句

强调句型由“It is / was + 被强调部分+that / who +其他成分”构成,灵活运用强调句型不仅有助于增强表达效果,突岀所表达的情感或者突出某些人物或事件的重要性,更能彰显考生对英语表达的把控能力。

(1)It is her friendliness and the sense of responsibility that make me admire her. 她的友好和责任感使我敬佩她。

(2)It was you who bridge the gap between us and English. 就是你架起了我们和英语的桥梁。

6. 巧妙使用风格独具的特殊句式

在写作中,对倒装句、省略句、it的用法和感叹句等特殊句式的巧妙应用是书面表达获得高分的强力助力,也是提升写作档次的有效方式。

1)灵活使用倒装

Only when you come to China can you experience Chinese food culture. 只有当你来到中国,你才体验中国美食文化。

Not only can I have some new discoveries but also I experienced the joy of labor and enrich my knowledge. 我不仅有一些新的发现,而且体验到劳动的乐趣并丰富我的知识。

So significant is the game that it is required that everyone should be present punctually. 比賽如此重要,以致于要求每个人都要准时到场。

Challenging as the activity was, everyone enjoyed it and all the participants benefited a lot from it. 尽管这项活动具有挑战性,但是大家都喜欢,所有参加者都从中受益。

 

2)恰当使用省略句式

When built/set up, the new stadium will become the new landmark in our school. 建好时,这个新的体育场将成为我们学校新的地标。

3)学会使用it句型

常用的it句型有:

1)主语+动词+it+adj./n.+to do sth./that+句子

2) It is +adj./n./v-ed+ that+句子

3) It+adj./n.+of/for sb.to do sth.

4) It seemed/happened/appeared that +句子

5) It is (high) time that sb.did/should do sth.

What's more,it is very safe to consume the foods immediately. 此外,立即食用这些食品是非常安全的。

(4)适时运用感叹句

将陈述句改变为感叹句,可以增强语气,更能突出所表达的情感,提高感染力。

While working, I realized how hard it was to work in the field under a hot sun.  工作时,我意识到烈日下在地里干活是多么辛苦!

三、句子的变化

在句子的变化上,运用分词结构和独立主格结构,让句子言简意赅。

在写作时,考生可以利用非谓语动词对两个简单句进行整合,使其成为较高级的表达。

首先,运用分词短语整合简单句,提升表达档次。

I saw nobody around. I ran away immediately.

→Seeing nobody around, I ran away immediately.

看到四周无人,我立即跑开。

其次,运用分词短语简化复合句,使语言简练。

As time flew quickly, the activity was over.

→Time flying quickly, the activity was over.

时光飞逝,活动也结束了。

四、语态的变化

在语态的变化上,多用被动语态,实现表达上的巧妙。在写作时,考生可以多用被动语态,这样表达更生动。

As new generation of teenager , I must be motivated to study hard and grow up to be a useful person for our country. 作为新一代少年,我要励志好好学习,长大后成为对国家有用的人。

常用的含被动语态的高级表达如下:

1.It is said/reported/supposed/hoped/suggested…that…(据说/报道/推测/人们希望/有人建议)

2.It is well-known that…/As is well-known,…/ What is well-known is that…(众所周知)

3.It is generally considered that…(普遍认为)

4.It is universally /widely accepted/acknowledged that…(普遍公认)

 

五、结构的变化

在结构的变化上,恰当地使用过渡性词语,实现文章结构上的连贯与紧凑。衔接与过渡词语的使用是语言连贯性得以实现的常用手段。在句与句、段与段之间恰当地使用一些承上启下的连接(过渡)性词语能使整篇文章浑然一体,文章前后连贯、结构紧凑、过渡自然,进而提升了表达的层次,成为作文增分的亮点。

First and foremost, needless to say, he is good at English… Additionally, no one can deny he… Last but certainly not least, he has a lot of life experience…

via 刘运芳英语备考

最后编辑于:2022/1/4 拔丝英语网

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