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Most people do not realise that some banks literally make money by giving loans without having money on deposit.The system is called fractional reserve banking and is used in most sounds as though it is safe because it says that banks have to keep a fraction of their deposits with the Reserve Bank.

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Your subject outlines are a good place to go to find information about which textbooks to buy.You will usually be given one of these for each subject in the first lecture,but if you are missing one or need one earlier then you should contact the subject coordinator.

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This book is no ordinary book,and should not be read through from beginning to contains many different adventures and the path you take will be determined by the choices you make along the way.The success (or failure)of your mission hinges on decisions you make,so think carefully before choosing.

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Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them.Her sister,younger by two years.interrupted in amazement,"What are you talking about?"she said."Our parents were very lenient.

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Nature offers no greater splendour than the starry sky on a clear,dark night.Silent and jeweled with the constellations of ancient myth and legend,the night sky has inspired wonder throughout the ages -a wonder that leads our imaginations far from the confines of Earth and the pace of the present day and out into the distant reaches of space and cosmic time itself.

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The advantage of the great European and American orchestras is that they were able to establish their iconic status in an age when their identity could become entrenched,there was less competition and it was easier to create a brand.Not only did they have the best halls,they attracted the best musicians,who tended to stay put.


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39 point 5 percent of California residents do not speak English in the home.

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The tutorial rooms are located along the left hand side.

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Let's see if the technology is going to cooperate for this presentation.

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She doesn't care about anything but what is honest and true.

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Children are not allowed in tutorial rooms at any time.

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In Europe, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.

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Politicians make much bad decisions when they listen to public opinion.

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We have very little actual documentation of it.

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15 We've been doing research in that area for probably over 25 years.

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The media have had a great influence on people's beliefs and attitudes.

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The final exam will test material from all chapters covered in class this term.


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removing all immigration controls would double the size of the world economy.even a small relaxation of immigration controls would lead to disproportionately big's hard to argue against the policy that would do so much to help people.They go strange to pockets of local people.


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 What is formed when snow melts?

– Water.

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What material is normally used to make windows and light bulbs?

– Glass

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Does mathematics or linguistics cover the study of the relationships between numbers?

– Mathematics.

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What's the word for the fourth basic arithmetical operation:addition, subtraction, multiplication and?

– Division.

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How many times does an isolated incident occur?

– One.

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What type of costal building warns sailors of dangerous coast?

– Light house.

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How often is a quarterly journal published.

– Once a quarter.



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A marketing objective is a marketing target or goal that an organisation hopes to achieve,and if firms set marketing objectives the probability of success increases because decision making will be more focused, and marketing objectives must be compatible with the overall objectives of the company,and to be effective,marketing objectives should be quantifiable and measurable Targets should also be set within a time frame.


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Some say that in today's world the value of humanities has been eclipsed by the necessity of preparing for specific wealth-producing careers, such as medicine.Discuss whether you think there is a role in today's changing world for study of the humanities.



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Most chapters have a 'mixed exercise' after the (1) work of the chapter has been completed. This will help you revise what you have done. either when you have finished the chapter or at a (2) date. All chapters end with some mathematical puzzles, practical and/or investigational work. For this work you are encouraged to (3) your ideas with others, to use any mathematics you are familiar with, and to try different approaches.





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The promotion of good customer service must start at the top.If management doesn't realize how important this(1)of their business is. they will be at an instant (2) in their industry.Good customer response equates to loyal customers,which are the cornerstone of any successful business.No matter how much money you invest in (3)  if you don't have this fundamental element of your business right,its (4) money.





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Impressionist painters were considered (1)in their time because they broke many of the rules of picture-making set by earlier (2) They found many of their (3) in life around them rather than in history,which was then the accepted (4) of subject matter.






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In many large urban areas with highly (1) and often transient populations, identification and engagement with the local (2) can be low, often confounded by a more general (3) with formal politics.Younger people in (4) are voting less and turning more to single issue politics and more direct and immediate (5) of political expression such as petition,demonstrating and direct action.






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Digital media and the internet have made the sharing of texts,music and images easier than ever,and the (1) of copyright restriction harder.This situation has encouraged the growth of Intellectual Property(IP)law.and (2) increased industrial concentration on extending and policing IP protection.It has also led to the growth of an open access,or creative commons movement which (3) such control of knowledge and (4).







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1.Frequently,road accidents occur very early in the morning.

2.For example,Port Macquarie police figures  indicated  that 45% of all accidents occur between 1 and 5 am.

3.Moreover,the majority of these cases involved teenage drivers.

4.Consequently, considerable public concern has been expressed about the need to support young drivers more.

5.A system of additional licensing requirements has also been suggested to curb the road toll in this age group.

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1.Education scholars generally agree that mayors can help failing school districts.

2.They are starting,however,to utter warnings.

3.That mayor's aggressive control over schools was criticized for reducing parents'influence.

4.One review pointed to a certain big city mayor's style as an example of what not to do.


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There is a general consensus among mainstream anthropologists that humans first emerged in Africa about two million years ago.Since then we have spread throughout the world, successfully adapting to widely differing conditions and to periodic cataclysmic changes in local and global climate.

The many separate societies that emerged around the globe differed markedly from each other,and many of these differences persist to this day.

As well as the more obvious cultural differences that exist between peoples, such as language. dress and traditions.there are also significant variations in the way societies organise themselves,in their shared conception of morality.and in the ways they interact with their environment.It is debatable whether these differences are merely incidental artifacts arising from patterns of human migration or whether they represent an evolutionary trait that is key to our success as a species.By analogy with biodiversity, which is thought to be essential to the long-term survival of life on can be argued that cultural diversity may be vital for the long-term survival of humanity,and that the conservation of indigenous cultures may be as important to humankind as the conservation of species and ecosystems is to life in general.

According to the passage,which of the following statements are true?

Humans have been unable to successfully adapt to different climates.

The way societies organize themselves is an insubstantial cultural difference.

Language is generally considered to be a cultural difference.

Societies today still retain many cultural differences from the past.

Cultural diversity is unnecessary for continuing human survival on Earth.

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Researchers in Residence'is a scheme which places postdoctoral researchers in secondary schools across the UK.The programme aims to enable greater dialogue and interaction between third-level researchers and school students, and is about raising motivation among pupils by allowing them to connect with a cutting-edge researcher who is knowledgeable and passionate about their subject. Dr Barfoot, project manager, says. 'The pupils have direct access to positive role models. We want to challenge the stereotypical image, in particular, of scientists. As an experiment. before introducing Melanie Thompson, a PhD student in microbiology . to a school in Yorkshire earlier this year. the science teacher asked pupils to draw a picture of what they thought a scientist looked like. Predictably. almost all drew an image of the stereotyped eccentric professor, and only one drew a woman scientist. When Melanie arrived,without a white coat or a pair of spectacles in sight. the children were immediately smitten. Armed with an assortment of bright and cuddly bacteria 'toys',Melanie set to work on two experiments she had designed to illustrate the concept of 'good' and 'bad' bacteria. While the benefits for schools are obvious, what do researchers gain?Participation is a good addition to a CV, but also gives researchers the opportunity to engage young people with their research. and in doing so develop important communication. teamwork and interpersonal skills. Some participants are also keen on broadening their horizons and gaining new perspectives on pedagogy.

According to the passage.which of the following statements are true?

School pupils learn about microbiology.

It overcomes pre-conceptions about scientists.

The resulting benefits are two-way.

Researchers widen their scope for research topics.

Programmes are devised to suit the needs of pupils.


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Laughter and the appreciation of humour are vital components of adaptive social, emotional and cognitive function. Surprisingly, they are not uniquely human. Primates and apes also enjoy a good chuckle.This may have evolved because it helps them survive. Laughter is, after all, a communal activity which promotes bonding. diffuses potential conflict and eases stress and anxiety.But it loses its momentum quickly when indulged in alone (solitary laughter can have ominous connotations).

What point does the writer make about laughter?

O It can be beneficial when we are on our own.

It is used differently by humans and monkeys.

It helps us identify dangerous situations.

It is important for building relationships.

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Delacroix had the utmost contempt for the age in which he lived,for its crass materialism and complacent belief in progress:and his art is almost entirely an attempt to escape from it.He escaped into the subjects of romantic particular that of Shakespeare.Byron and Walter Scott.

He had a Byronic power of self-identification with the forces of the sublime in particular "the roaring of lions and the destructive sword."Baudelaire said that when an idea shot through his mind his muscles quivered with impatience and his eyes shone like a tiger stalking its prey.At feeding-time in the Paris Zoo he was overwhelmed with happiness.

From this author's description of the painter Delacroix,which of the following can be inferred?

Delacroix gained inspiration for his art primarily from his inner thoughts.

Delacroix's art was inspired by the progressive age in which he lived.

Delacroix was an artist of very strong emotions.

Delacroix drew his artistic vision from observing animals.



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This topic talks about telescope. Firstly, the speaker mentioned that telescope has improved a lot by improving the modern digital detector. After that, the speaker stated that the telescope can see more details when attracting more light otherwise will be blurry and the telescope now can see 100 times and 10 times more clearly than before. In conclusion, the speaker said that telescope helps astronomers a lot.(66 words)


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The key factor which is identified as holding back the implementation of projects is?

A.a lack of identified urgent needs.

B.bureaucratic inertia.

C.insufficient discussion at conferences.

D.competition between organizations.


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When the speaker refers to the person who visisted his school as being a 'visionary'he is being?







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Listen to the recording and answer the question by selecting all the correct responses.You will need to select more than one response.

What is indicated in the discussion?

A.Mosquito bites are only inflicted by the femal of the specis.

B.Certain body parts are particularly attractive to mosquitoes.

C.Male mosqultoes need blood protein in order to survive.

D.Humans are mosquitoes' primary food source.

E.Mosquito bites may cause different reactions in different people.

答案:A   E


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So in a very important sense,um,memory is the cognitive function that stores knowledge that we've acquired through learning and (1) but also memory is important because memory frees our behaviour from (2) by the present stimulus environment. If you didn't have memory,all you'd be able to do was to (3) to whatever's currently in the environment now,whatever it is that you're (4) But memory allows us to respond to past events as well as events in the current stimulus environment.And memory also gives us the means to (5) on our experiences so that we plan for,for future encounters







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For four centuries after the Viking (1) the people of the Shetland Islands off the north coast of Scotland continued to sell their goods through the north European Hanseatic Leaque.The Hansa merchants bought shiploads of (2) fish and in return the islanders got cash.

grain,cloth and other goods.This lasted until the Act of Union between Scotland and England in 1707.This Act prohibited the Hansa merchants from (3) with Scotland.Consequently Shetland went into an economic (4) The independent farmers of Shetland had to sell their land and were then (5) to pay rent,eventually becoming serfs.







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Another arm of the United States government was the FSA,the Farm Security (1) and they had a peculiar task, ch had obviously hit farmers quite hard because suddenly the material that they were producing wasn't really as (2) yet their costs for producing it were exactly the same,they were hit not only by that but also by another problem which was the Dust Bowl;and the Dust Bowl was this terrible (3) that hit the American West and Southwest especially,and caused terrible economic problems for those farmers.






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Southampton Institute is a new organization which is finding it difficult to establish itself as a recognized research institution.It has been trying to attract more highly qualified teaching and research staff but it is proving difficult to do this due to lack of sufficient funding.

Higher educational institutions have to concern themselves with teaching, learning, research and scholarship. All of these aspects of their work are valuable. However, it is most appropriate to keep these functions separate in the long-term strategic planning of the institution.

Teaching and research are both important aspects of an institute's work and it is important to provide both with equal funding.They should both have an equally significant place in strategic planning,and institutes that manage this successfully should be rewarded with extra funding for their educational initiatives.

The speaker's institution is making a determined effort to link teaching with research among its faculty.It is finding this difficult partly because the Opeople who work in one field haven't previously interacted too much with people in the other field,and because of external structures that hinder rather than support such initiatives


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What is the main point the speaker is making about migration?

Urbanisation is a more serious problem than migration.

China has the largest number of migrants in the world.

More people are moving between countries than ever before.

There are more internal immigrants than international immigrants.

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What can be inferred about the neutrality of search engines?

They are morally neutral in appearance, therefore they are neutral.

The details of how they work are well known and therefore they are neutral.

It is wrong to assume that the algorithms provide completely neutral results.

We should assume that the algorithms provide completely neutral results.


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Dogs that mean that you could try to figure out,the context between, or the relationship between behavior and these technological settings in such a way that you could try to create a technological setting that awarded just those types of behavior that were good?I'm intending this to be a very simple question.Perhaps too simple.But that's my.That's an open question.Can you design a technological set-up so that it defines a certain type of behavior?





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The extra lecture will take place on a Wednesday but I'm not certain exactly when it's going to be or where.But will let you know, don't bother So you can all just have an eye on your emails,this is how we'll let you know of any changes to the programme.Right, so beginning with the outline. We're going to be looking at difficult types of historical research, the strengths and weaknesses of yes, back row?




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Anyone who's ever paid attention to the warnings of climate change is aware that sea level rise is one of the constructs.And even though science is improving our insight into ocean and ice dynamism,and the scientific measurement of the rate of sea level rise,billions of dollars.worth of coastal development is still being considered under the assumption that the stable sea levels of the past several millennia will continue.That's why a group of international physicists have written a new book called Understanding Sea-level Rise and Variability.A comprehensive overview of current knowledge on the causes of sea level rise.






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Most of the students had not considered this issue before.

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Money and how it is paid can affect motivation to work.

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When workers ask for higher wages, companies often raise prices.

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Teaching assistants will receive a monthly stipend for housing



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