开保时捷的需要“自动驾驶”吗? | 外刊精读解析

今年新晋的世界首富埃隆·马斯克于10月24日在其社交媒体表示,特斯拉公司的全自动驾驶(Full-Self Driving)高级驾驶辅助软件的10.3版本因发现存在问题,决定将版本退回至10.2。

无独有偶,最新一期《经济学人》中的一篇文章恰好讲到保时捷公司正在用新的算法开发自动驾驶技术。我们一起来学习一下吧。

学习要点

黄牛”除了scalper,还可以怎么说?

什么是 photorealistic

学习 dial back, roll back 的用法

带着问题去精读

*文章来源:The Economist

*本文中原文及部分例句翻译均采用机翻+人工微调,有待改进,仅供参考,重在词汇解析及吸收外刊的地道用法,如译文有不当之处欢迎大家在评论区讨论。

1

精读原文

Hands off the wheel: Teaching autonomous cars to drive with computer games

手离方向盘:用电脑游戏教自动驾驶汽车行驶

 

When driving, Clara-­Marina Martinez makes a note of any unusual behaviour she sees on the road. She then feeds these into machine­-learning algorithms, a form of AI, which she is helping develop for Porsche Engineering, a division of the eponymous German sports-­car company.

开车的时候,克拉娜-玛丽娜·马丁内斯记下她在路上看到的任何不寻常的行为。然后,她将这些数据输入机器学习算法,这是人工智能的一种形式,她正在帮助德国跑车公司保时捷同名的子公司——保时捷工程集团开发这种算法。

📒精读解析:

开篇用一个场景案例吸引读者注意力。第二句的主干结构为She feeds these into algorithms,these 指代上文记录的行为,a form of AI 是 algorithms 的同位语说明,后面跟一个 which 引导的非限制性定语从句,关系代词 which 在从句中的成分是 develop 的宾语,a division … company 是Porsche Engineering 公司的同位语。

No.1

autonomous adj. /ɔːˈtɒnəməs/

【释义】

able to govern itself or control its own affairs or able to do things and make decisions without help from anyone else自治的,有自治权的;自主的

我国的“自治区”对应的英文就是 autonomous region

【例句】

He treated us as autonomous individuals who had to learn to make up our own minds about issues. 他视我们为独立个体,必须学会自主处理问题。

这个词的名词形式是 autonomy 自治权

前缀 auto- 表示“自己的;本身的”,记住这个前缀,就可以记住一连串相关的词汇了,例如:

autobiography 自传

autograph 亲笔签名

automatic 自动的

automobile 汽车(自己移动)

No.2

division n. /dɪˈvɪʒn/

【释义】

division 是 divide 的名词形式,意为“分开;分隔;分配”。

在本段中 division 指 a large and important unit or section of an organization 分部,部门

division 还可以表示 a disagreement or difference in opinion, way of life, etc., especially between members of a society or an organization 分歧;不和;差异,尤其指一个社会或组织内成员之间的

如:social/class divisions 社会/阶级分化对立

【例句】

There are deep divisions in the party over the war. 党内对于这场战争存在着严重的分歧。

No.3

eponymous adj. /ɪˈpɒnɪməs/

【释义】

大部分英文词典中的释义都是 the eponymous character of a book, play, film/movie, etc. is the one mentioned in the title 与标题同名的

但在实际应用中,eponymous 并不局限于“标题同名”

【例句】

Michael Dell is proceeding with a thinly priced takeout of the eponymous computer company. 迈克尔•戴尔正在以极低的价格收购与他同名的这家电脑公司。

No.4

sports car

【释义】

a low fast car, often with a roof that can be folded back 跑车(车身低,顶篷多可折叠)

开保时捷的需要“自动驾驶”吗? | 外刊精读解析

2

精读原文

Those algorithms are intended to produce a system reliable enough for a car to drive itself. Such a fully autonomous car, known in the industry as Level 5, should be able to complete an entire journey without any intervention from the driver, and cope with all situations on the road. But this is proving hard to achieve, and many attempts to do so are being scaled back. Last year, for instance, Uber, a ride-­hailing service, sold off its unit developing self­driving cars. 

这些算法旨在产生一个足够可靠的系统,使汽车能够自动驾驶。这种被业内称为5级的全自动汽车应该能够在没有驾驶员干预的情况下完成整个旅程,并应对道路上的所有情况。但事实证明,这很难实现,许多相关的商业活动都被缩减了,例如,去年,叫车服务公司优步将其开发自动驾驶汽车的部门出售。

📒精读解析:

第一句中 reliable … itself 是 system 的后置定语。第二句的主干结构是 a car should be able to complete an entire journey,known … Level 5 是 car 的后置定语,and 后面的 cope with 与 complete 并列。最后一句中 developing self-driving cars 是 unit 的后置定语。

No.1

scale back

【释义】

to reduce or make a reduction in the level of activity, extent, numbers, etc 缩减活动、范围、数量等的等级

【例句】

As a result, they may scale back the care they provide or demand higher state payments. 因此,他们可能会减少他们提供的医疗服务,或者要求政府支付更多费用。

No.2

ride-hailing

【释义】

叫车服务,打车服务

hail 的意思是 to signal to a taxi or a bus, in order to get the driver to stop 招手请出租车或公共汽车停下

2021年CATTI英语一级笔译考试中的审校题中考到了这个短语,试题中将“叫车服务”翻译为 ride-sharing,两者有所不同,顾名思义,ride-sharing 指“拼车”。

No.3

sell off

【释义】

这个短语不是单纯的“售卖”,而是 to suffer a drop in prices 廉价出售,甩卖,变卖

【例句】

The company is selling off some sites and concentrating on cutting debts. 该公司正在变卖一些地皮,全力削减债务。

开保时捷的需要“自动驾驶”吗? | 外刊精读解析

《破产姐妹 第六季 2 Broke Girls Season 6 第5集》

3

精读原文

Autonomous vehicles are touted as being not just convenient but potentially safer. However, just as people take time to learn how to drive safely, so do machines. And machines are not as quick on the uptake. The Rand Corporation, an American think­tank, calculates that to develop a system 20% safer than a human driver, a fleet of 100 self­driving cars would have to operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and cover 14bn kilometres. At average road speeds, that would take about 400 years.

无人驾驶汽车被吹捧为不仅方便,而且可能更安全。然而,就像人们需要花时间来学习如何安全驾驶一样,机器也是如此。机器的吸收速度也没有那么快。美国智库兰德公司计算出,要开发一个比人类司机安全20%的系统,必须让100辆自动驾驶汽车一年365天每天工作24小时,需行驶140亿公里。以平均道路速度计算,这需要400年的时间。

📒精读解析:

No.1

tout v. /taʊt/

【释义】

1) to try to persuade people that somebody/something is important or valuable by praising them/it 标榜;吹捧;吹嘘

【例句】

She's being touted as the next leader of the party. 她被吹捧为该党的下一任领导人。

2)to try to persuade people to buy your goods or services, especially by going to them and asking them directly 兜售;推销

【例句】

He's busy touting his client's latest book around London's literary agents. 他正忙于向伦敦各文学作品代理人兜售他的委托人的一部新书。

tout 还有“倒卖高价票,卖黑市票”的意思,作名词表示“黄牛”,与我们之前学过的 scalper 同义。

开保时捷的需要“自动驾驶”吗? | 外刊精读解析

《生活大爆炸 第三季 第19集》

No.2

uptake n. /ˈʌpteɪk/

【释义】

形似动词,实则是个名词,表示 the understanding of something 理解,领会

【例句】

She is not an intellectual, but is quick on the uptake. 她不是一个智力超群的人,但是理解事物却很快。

也可以表示 the amount of something that a person takes in or absorbs 摄取量

【例句】

The drug increases the number of red cells in the blood, enhancing oxygen uptake by 10 percent. 这种药增加血液里的红细胞数量,将氧气吸收量提高百分之十。

No.3

a fleet of

【释义】

fleet 特指a group of military ships commanded by the same person 舰队,或者a group of planes, buses, taxis, etc. travelling together or owned by the same organization机群,车队,强调有组织的

【例句】

With its own fleet of trucks, the company delivers most orders overnight. 因为有自己的运输车队,该公司的大部分订货可以第二天就送到。

4

精读原文

Carmakers such as Porsche therefore accelerate the development process using simulators. These teach software about hazards only rarely encountered in reality. Dr. Martinez and her colleagues employ “game engines”, the programs that generate photorealistic images in computer games, to do this. These are used to create virtual worlds through which the software can drive.

因此,保时捷等汽车制造商使用模拟器加快了开发过程。这些软件将在现实中很少遇到的危险传授给软件。马丁内斯博士和她的同事使用“游戏引擎”,即在电脑游戏中生成逼真图像的程序来实现这一点。他们用这个程序来创建虚拟世界,通过这样让软件来驾驶。

📒精读解析:

No.1

photorealistic 

【释义】

根据这个词的组成,可直译为“照相写实主义的”,意为 a style of painting that resembles photography in its meticulous attention to realistic detail 像照片一样写实的绘画风格

开保时捷的需要“自动驾驶”吗? | 外刊精读解析

5

精读原文

Objects in these virtual worlds are assigned their physical characteristics (i.e. buildings are hard, people are soft) so that the sensors in vehicles, such as cameras, radar, lidar (a form of radar that uses light) and ultrasound transceivers respond in the appropriate way. Once the software has been trained, it is tested in real autonomous vehicles by re­creating those situations on a test track.

这些虚拟世界中的物体被赋予了它们的物理特征(例如,建筑是硬的,人是软的),这样车辆中的传感器,如摄像机、雷达、激光雷达(一种使用光的雷达)和超声波收发器就会以适当的方式做出响应。一旦软件经过训练,它就会在真实的自动驾驶汽车上进行测试,在测试轨道上重现这些情况。

📒精读解析:

第一句为长句,但只要找到句子主干句意就不难理解了,主干为 Objects are assigned their physical characteristics, so that 引导目的状语从句,从句的主干为 the sensors respond in the appropriate way,such as … transceivers 是插入语,都属于 sensors。

No.1

assign v. /əˈsaɪn/

【释义】

to give somebody something that they can use, or some work or responsibility 分配某物;分派,布置任务等

根据其所在的句子可以看出,assign 和其他的“给予”类动词一样,都可以跟双宾语,即组成“动词 + somebody something”或“动词 + something to somebody” 的结构,这类动词常用的有:give,lend,pay,send,buy,return,fetch等。

【例句】

Later in the year, she'll assign them research papers. 今年晚些时候,她将给他们布置论文。

The selling broker is then required to assign a portion of the commission to the buyer broker. 卖方经纪人则被要求分给买方经纪人一部分佣金。

No.2

transceiver n. /trænˈsiːvə(r)/

【释义】

a radio that can both send and receive messages 无线电收发器

6

精读原文

How quickly, if ever, all this will translate into reality remains to be seen. Both regulators and customers will need to overcome scepticism that a software driver really can be safer than a wetware one. From Porsche’s point of view, though, there is one other pertinent question. Given that much of the reason for owning a sports car is for owners to show off what they perceive to be their driving skills, just how big a market will there be for a version where software takes those bragging rights away?

这一切即使能够成为现实,那么究竟会以多快的速度变为现实,还有待观察。监管机构和客户都需要克服这样的疑虑,即软件驱动程序是否真的比湿件更安全。不过,从保时捷的角度来看,还有一个相关的问题,即考虑到拥有一辆跑车的主要原因是为了让车主能炫耀他们自认为的驾驶技术,那么如果一款跑车被软件夺走了这些炫耀的权利,那它的市场会有多大呢?

*湿件:计算机专用术语﹐指软件﹑硬件以外的其它“件”﹐即人脑﹐也通常指人脑和机器连接起来的设备。

📒精读解析:

我们分析一下最后一句长难句,句子主干是一个特殊疑问句,how big a market will there be,given 引导了一个介词宾语从句,given 在这里是一个介词,表示“考虑到,鉴于”,从句是主系表结构,主语为 reason,to show off 为表语,for owners 是宾语的逻辑主语,show off 后面又跟了一个 what 引导的宾语从句,what 在从句中担任 perceive 的宾语。主句疑问句中嵌套了一个由 where 引导的定语从句,修饰 version。

No.1

 if ever

【释义】

小编一直认为 if 插入语是一个翻译难点,比如这里的if ever, 还有if any等。本段中处理为“即使能够成为现实”,如果大家有更好的翻译建议或者此类插入语的翻译技巧,欢迎大家在评论区分享。

我们再提供一个例句供大家讨论:

School Principals in many developing countries receive little, if any, leadership and development training.

许多发展中国家的校长几乎没有接受过领导力和发展方面的培训。(这句译文中没有体现 if any)

No.2

scepticism n. /ˈskeptɪsɪzəm/

【释义】

an attitude of doubting that claims or statements are true or that sth will happen 怀疑态度;怀疑主义

【例句】

Such claims should be regarded with a certain amount of scepticism. 对这样的说法,大可不必全信。

No.3

wetware

【释义】

the human brain, considered as a computer program or system 湿件,指被视为计算机程序或系统的人脑

科普:湿件是与软件、硬件并列的IT第三大件,代表与计算机软件、硬件系统紧密相连的人,如程序员、操作员、管理员,及与系统相连的人类神经系统。“湿件”一词的起源尚待考证,但有一点是可以肯定的:自从美国“赛博朋克”鲁迪·卢克(Rudy Rucker)1988年出版题为《湿件》的科幻小说之后,这个词开始流行起来。

No.4

pertinent adj. /ˈpɜːtɪnənt/

【释义】

relevant to a particular subject 相关的

【例句】

Please keep your comments pertinent to the topic under discussion. 请勿发表与讨论主题无关的言论。

No.5

bragging n.

【释义】

excessively proud and boastful talk about one's achievements or possessions 炫耀

【例句】

Cosell was driving his colleagues at ABC half-mad with his drinking, his tedious bragging. 科塞尔用他的酗酒和无聊的吹嘘把他在ABC的同事都逼疯了。

开保时捷的需要“自动驾驶”吗? | 外刊精读解析

取自《生活大爆炸 第十一季 The Big Bang Theory Season 11 第2集》

拓展:在各大车企竞相开发自动驾驶技术的时候,今年新晋的世界首富埃隆·马斯克于10月24日在其社交媒体表示,特斯拉公司的全自动驾驶(Full-Self Driving)高级驾驶辅助软件的10.3版本因发现存在问题,决定将版本退回至10.2。对此,《华盛顿邮报》报道如下:

7

精读原文

Tesla is dialing back its Full Self-Driving software, CEO Elon Musk said Sunday, after discovering software bugs in the new batch of the software beta. The company had rolled out a new version of its driver-assistance software to an expanded group of users over the weekend, but Musk said that it proved problematic and that the company was working on fixes.

特斯拉首席执行官埃隆·马斯克周日表示,在新一批测试软件中发现了软件漏洞后,特斯拉将召回其全自动驾驶软件。上周末,该公司向更多用户推出了新版本的辅助驾驶软件,但马斯克表示,事实证明该软件存在问题,该公司正在进行修复。

📒精读解析:

No.1

dial back

【释义】

to reduce something or make it less extreme 倒回,减弱

【例句】

Even if Susan eventually finds new work, they drop their goal of purchasing a 2nd home and they dial back on discretionary spending. 即使苏珊最终找到了新工作,他们也会放弃购买第二套房子的目标,减少可自由支配的开支。

关于特斯拉此事件的报道, BBC的标题为 Tesla withdraws self-driving beta over software issues;CNBC的标题为Tesla had to roll back and reissue the latest beta version of its driver assistance software

根据语境发现,dial back,roll back,withdraw意思相近,有“倒回”的意思,可以理解为“退回原先水平”或“重新运行”,我们在写作时可以灵活运用。

【例句】

Take two tax cuts, roll back some regulations, and call us in the morning. 减税两次,取消一些规定,早上给我们打电话。

We have successfully started to roll back the process of Islamization in the Netherlands. 我们已经成功地开始在荷兰扭转伊斯兰化进程。

No.2

roll out

【释义】

to introduce (as a new product or service) especially for widespread sale to the public 出新产品或服务

【例句】

On Thursday Microsoft rolls out its new operating system. 在星期四微软推出了它的新操作系统。

原文始发于(译介):开保时捷的需要“自动驾驶”吗? | 外刊精读解析