美国将为吸毒者开设首家注射中心

近日,媒体报道称,美国罗得岛州(The Rhode Island)将在明年1月之前制定一项为期两年的试点计划,开设安全注射中心。在安全注射中心,吸毒者由工作人员按剂量进行注射,以防止药物过量致死。

无注释原文:

Rhode Island Set to Be First State to Pilot Safe-Injection Sites for Drug Users

The Wall Street Journal

The Rhode Island plans to create supervised spaces for users to inject illegal drugs, in a big test of the idea that reducing harm to drug users is more effective than criminalization.

The two-year pilot, a first for a state, would establish sites where users could also have drugs tested for potentially fatal doses of fentanyl, the potent synthetic opioid that drove overdose deaths to a nationwide record in 2020.

States including Massachusetts and California are considering similar sites. Some cities have attempted to legalize supervised-injection sites, including Philadelphia, where one was blocked from opening under a legal challenge from the Trump administration.

Such injection sites allow people to use drugs including heroin and methamphetamine, under the supervision of trained personnel. In the event of an overdose, staff can administer the antidote naloxone. Advocates say the sites prevent overdose deaths and provide an access point to other services that can help prevent harm to users, such as housing, medical care and treatment.

Critics say there is no evidence the sites significantly reduce illegal drug use or dependency. Rhode Island State Rep. Arthur Corvese, a Democrat, said it doesn’t make sense to set rules for most people and then create a space for some to break them. “There’s almost like a moral oxymoron going on here,” he said.

Rhode Island’s planned safe-use sites may have greater success in facing down a federal challenge because states have more authority than cities to set drug-enforcement policy, legal experts say. Advocates for so-called harm-reduction policies say Rhode Island’s law is the most direct test yet of the idea that legal-consumption sites can reduce overdose deaths and harm to drug users.

“We’ve been historically a country that addresses a health condition with punishments,” said Suzanne Carlberg-Racich, associate professor of public health at DePaul University in Chicago.

Rhode Island State Rep. Edith Ajello, a Democrat, said the death of her best friend’s son to an overdose during the pandemic helped convince her that safe-use sites would help prevent deaths across the state.

“Supervised consumption sites can help to cut these losses,” she said.

Overdose deaths are the leading cause of accidental death in the country, killing more people than car crashes. Such deaths surged nearly 30% in 2020 due to a deadlier drug supply and the destabilizing effect of the Covid-19 pandemic, according to federal data and public-health officials.

One would-be user of the planned sites in Rhode Island, Lee McDaniel, 51 years old, said he has used drugs on and off for more than a decade. He said that he has ended up in dangerous, abusive and potentially fatal situations to hide his drug use.

“We are forced to put ourselves in positions where the choices we have to make all degrade, deface and strip down our human dignity,” he said.

Countries including Canada and the Netherlands have established similar safe-use sites. In Toronto, Shaun Hopkins said the site she helps manage has helped users get treatment, housing and medical care. She said some users come to the site up to four times a day.

 

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注:中文文本为机器翻译仅供参考,并非一一对应

含注释全文:

 

Rhode Island Set to Be First State to Pilot Safe-Injection Sites for Drug Users

The Wall Street Journal

The Rhode Island plans to create supervised spaces for users to inject illegal drugs, in a big test of the idea that reducing harm to drug users is more effective than criminalization.

 

罗得岛州(The Rhode Island)计划为用户注射非法药物创造监督场所,这是针对减少对吸毒者的伤害比定罪更有效这一观点的一次大考验。

 

supervised

 

supervsied此处作形容词,supervise作动词,表示“监督,管理,指”,英文解释为“to watch a person or activity to make certain that everything is done correctly, safely, etc.举个🌰:

The UN is supervising the distribution of aid by local agencies in the disaster area.

联合国正在监督灾区的地方机构发放救援物资。

 

inject

inject表示“(给…)注射(药物等)”,英文解释为“to put a drug or other substance into a person's or an animal's body using a syringe举个🌰:

Adrenalin was injected into the muscle.

往肌肉里注射了肾上腺素。

区分:

📍ingest表示“摄入;食入;咽下”,英文解释为“to take food, drugs, etc. into your body, usually by swallowing”,个🌰:

The chemicals can be poisonous if ingested.

这些化学制品如果摄入体内可能会引起中毒。

补充:

📍digest表示“消化”,英文解释为“when you digest food, or it digests , it is changed into substances that your body can use举个🌰:

Humans cannot digest plants such as grass.

人不能消化草类植物。

 

criminalization

 

表示“定罪;宣布犯有罪行”,英文解释为“the action of turning someone into a criminal by making their activities illegal”。

 

 

The two-year pilot, a first for a state, would establish sites where users could also have drugs tested for potentially fatal doses of fentanyl, the potent synthetic opioid that drove overdose deaths to a nationwide record in 2020.

 

这个为期两年的试点项目是罗得岛州的首创,它将建立一些场所,用户也可以在那里对可能致命剂量的芬太尼(fentanyl)进行检测。2020年,这种强效合成阿片类药物过量致死数在全国范围内创下了记录。

 

pilot

 

熟词僻义,常见含义表示「飞行员」,可以作动词、作形容词,也可以直接作名词,比如形容词,表示“试验性的;试点的”,英文解释为“done on a small scale in order to see if sth is successful enough to do on a large scale”,如:例: a pilot project/study/survey 试验性项目/研究/调查。

 

📍政府工作报告中必定出现的词,如:加强自贸试验区改革开放创新,pursue reform, opening up, and innovation in pilot free trade zones,

 

dose

1)表示“一剂”(a measured amount of something such as medicine),如:a dose of penicillin 一剂青霉素;

2)表示“一些(糟糕或不愉快的事)”,英文解释为“an amount or experience of something, often something bad or unpleasant”举个🌰:

He received a hefty dose of bad news this week.

本周他得到了许多坏消息。

📍《经济学人》(The Economist)一篇讲述谷歌的文章中提到:The first route would involve taking a strong dose of managerial medicine to become a more tightly run conglomerate. 第一种解决方法是给它服用一剂管理上的强效药,让它成为管理更严格的企业集团。

 

fentanyl

 

fentanyl /ˈfentənɪl/ 表示“芬太尼,枸橼酸芬太尼,盐酸阿芬太尼(一种镇痛药)”,英文解释为“a drug used to reduce severe pain”。

 

potent

potent /ˈpəʊtənt/ 表示“强有力的,强大的;有效力的”,英文解释为“very powerful, forceful, or effective”举个🌰:

This is a very potent drug and can have unpleasant side-effects.

该药效力很强,副作用也不小。

 

synthetic

synthetic /sɪnˈθetɪk/ 表示“合成的,人造的”,英文解释为“Synthetic products are made from artificial substances, often copying a natural product.”如:synthetic fibres 人造纤维。

 

opioid

opioid /ˈəʊpɪˌɔɪd/ 可作名词或形容词,表示“类鸦片药物;类鸦片活性肽;与类鸦片活性肽有关的”。

 

 

States including Massachusetts and California are considering similar sites. Some cities have attempted to legalize supervised-injection sites, including Philadelphia, where one was blocked from opening under a legal challenge from the Trump administration.

 

包括马萨诸塞州(Massachusetts)和加利福尼亚州(California)在内的几个州正在考虑建立类似的站点。包括费城(Philadelphia在内的一些城市已经尝试将监督注射站合法化。在特朗普政府的法律质疑下,费城的监督注射站被阻止开放。

Such injection sites allow people to use drugs including heroin and methamphetamine, under the supervision of trained personnel. In the event of an overdose, staff can administer the antidote naloxone. Advocates say the sites prevent overdose deaths and provide an access point to other services that can help prevent harm to users, such as housing, medical care and treatment.

 

这种注射场所允许人们在受过训练的人员的监督下使用毒品,包括海洛因和甲基苯丙胺。如果出现吸毒过量的情况,工作人员可以施用解毒剂纳洛酮。倡导者说,这些场所可以防止吸毒过量死亡,并提供如住房、医疗护理和治疗等服务,有助于防止吸毒者受到伤害。

heroin

heroin /ˈheroʊɪn/ 表示“海洛因”,英文解释为“a powerful illegal drug”。

 

methamphetamine

methamphetamine /ˌmeθæmˈfetəmiːn/ 表示“甲基苯丙胺(刺激精神和身体的药物,容易让人上瘾)”,英文解释为“a drug that makes your mind and body more active. It is addictive (= you cannot stop taking it when you have started) and some people take it illegally.”

📍等同于crystal meth, meth.

 

administer

administration应该都不陌生,administer作动词,用来表示“管理,治理”(to manage the work or money of a company or organization),或者是表示“执行,实施;给予”,英文解释为“to provide or organize something officially as part of your job”举个🌰:

It is not the job of the police to administer justice; that falls to the courts.

司法不是警方的职责,而是法院的职责。

然而,此处并不是这个含义,算是熟词僻义,指的是“施用(药物),给予(治疗),派发(药物)”,英文解释为“to give someone a medicine or medical treatment”举个🌰:

Painkillers were administered to the boy.

已给那个男孩服了止痛药。

 

antidote

 

1)表示“解毒剂;(尤指)解毒药”,英文解释为“a chemical, especially a drug, that limits the effects of a poison”;

 

2)表示“矫正方法;缓解办法;对抗手段”,英文解释为“a way of preventing or acting against something bad举个🌰:

Regular exercise is the best antidote to tiredness and depression.

经常锻炼是消除疲劳和抑郁的最好方法。

 

naloxone

 

naloxone /nəˈlɒksəʊn/ 表示“那洛酮(可用于减轻或去除过量服用类鸦片药物产生的后果”,英文解释为“a drug used to reduce or remove the effects of taking too much of an opioid drug (= morphine or a drug that resembles morphine)”。

 

 

Critics say there is no evidence the sites significantly reduce illegal drug use or dependency. Rhode Island State Rep. Arthur Corvese, a Democrat, said it doesn’t make sense to set rules for most people and then create a space for some to break them. “There’s almost like a moral oxymoron going on here,” he said.

 

批评者说,没有证据表明这些站点能大大减少非法毒品的使用或依赖性。罗得岛州议员、民主党人阿瑟·科维兹(Arthur Corvese)说,为大多数人制定规则,然后为一些人创造空间来破坏规则,这是没有意义的。他说:“这里几乎就像一个道德上的矛盾体。

 

oxymoron

 

oxymoron /ˌɒksɪˈmɔːrɒn/ 实际上是一种修辞手法,称为矛盾修辞法,逆喻,就是用两种不相调和,甚至截然相反的词语来形容一件事物(百度百科)。例如,cruel kindness 残酷的仁慈,a clever fool 聪明的傻瓜,a living death 行尸走肉,a victorious defeat 胜利的失败等等。

 

 

Rhode Island’s planned safe-use sites may have greater success in facing down a federal challenge because states have more authority than cities to set drug-enforcement policy, legal experts say. Advocates for so-called harm-reduction policies say Rhode Island’s law is the most direct test yet of the idea that legal-consumption sites can reduce overdose deaths and harm to drug users.

 

法律专家说,罗得岛州计划中的安全使用场所在面对联邦质疑时可能会取得更大的成功,因为各州比城市有更多的权力来制定毒品执法政策。所谓减少伤害政策的倡导者说,罗得岛州的法律是对合法使用场所可以减少过量死亡和对吸毒者的伤害这一观点的最直接考验。

We’ve been historically a country that addresses a health condition with punishments,” said Suzanne Carlberg-Racich, associate professor of public health at DePaul University in Chicago.

芝加哥德保罗大学公共卫生副教授苏珊娜·卡尔伯格·拉奇(Suzanne Carlberg-Racich)说:“我们在历史上一直是一个以惩罚来解决健康问题的国家。”

 

Rhode Island State Rep. Edith Ajello, a Democrat, said the death of her best friend’s son to an overdose during the pandemic helped convince her that safe-use sites would help prevent deaths across the state.

 

罗得岛州议员、民主党人伊迪丝·阿杰罗(Edith Ajello)说,她最好的朋友的儿子在新冠疫情期间死于吸毒过量,是她相信安全使用场所将有助于防止整个州的过量死亡事件发生。

Supervised consumption sites can help to cut these losses,” she said.

 

她说:“有监督的使用场所可以帮助减少这些死亡。”

Overdose deaths are the leading cause of accidental death in the country, killing more people than car crashes. Such deaths surged nearly 30% in 2020 due to a deadlier drug supply and the destabilizing effect of the Covid-19 pandemic, according to federal data and public-health officials.

 

吸毒过量死亡是该国意外死亡的主要原因,比车祸的死亡人数更多。根据联邦数据和公共卫生官员的说法,由于更致命的药物供应和新冠疫情的不稳定影响,2020年这类死亡人数激增了近30%。

 

surge

1)作动词,表示“急剧上升;飞涨;剧增”,英文解释为“If something surges, it increases suddenly and greatly, after being steady or developing only slowly.”举个🌰:

The company's profits have surged.

公司的利润激增。

2)作名词,表示“剧增”,英文解释为“A surge is a sudden large increase in something that has previously been steady, or has only increased or developed slowly.”举个🌰:

An unexpected surge in electrical power caused the computer to crash.

突然出现的电压剧增导致电脑死机。

🎬电影《雷神2:黑暗世界》(Thor: The Dark World)中的台词提到:But she will not survive the amount of energy surging within her. 但她体内涌动的能量太大 她撑不住的。

美国将为吸毒者开设首家注射中心

destabilize

表示“颠覆;动摇;破坏,扰乱”,英文解释为“to make a government, area, or political group lose power or control, or to make a political or economic situation less strong or safe, by causing changes and problems”举个🌰:

The conflict destabilized the whole region.

这场冲突破坏了整个地区的稳定。

 

 

One would-be user of the planned sites in Rhode Island, Lee McDaniel, 51 years old, said he has used drugs on and off for more than a decade. He said that he has ended up in dangerous, abusive and potentially fatal situations to hide his drug use.

 

罗得岛州计划中的站点的一个潜在用户,51岁的李·麦克丹尼尔(Lee McDaniel)说,他断断续续地吸食毒品已经超过十年了。他说,为了掩盖他的吸毒行为,他最终陷入了危险、滥用且可能致命的境地。

 

would-be

表示“要做…的;试图成为…的;未来”,英文解释为“wanting or trying to be”如:a would-be artist/politician 未来的艺术家/政治家。

 

on and offword

 

表示“时断时续地;间歇地”,英文解释为“If something happens on and off during a period of time, it happens sometimes.举个🌰:

I've had toothache on and off for a couple of months.

我的牙断断续续疼了几个月。

 

abusive

1)表示“恶毒残暴的”,英文解释为“Someone who is abusive behaves in a cruel and violent way toward other people.举个🌰:

He became violent and abusive toward his mother. 

他对待他妈妈变得粗暴而又残酷。

2)表示“侮辱的”,英文解释为“Abusive language is extremely rude and insulting.举个🌰:

I did not use any foul or abusive language. 我没有使用过任何粗话或侮辱性的语言。

 

We are forced to put ourselves in positions where the choices we have to make all degrade, deface and strip down our human dignity,” he said.

 

他说:“我们被迫将自己置于这样的境地,我们必须做出的选择都是对我们人类尊严的贬低、玷污和剥夺。”

 

degrade

 

degrade作动词,表示“降低…身份;侮辱…的人格;使受屈辱”,英文解释为:to show or treat sb in a way that makes them seem not worth any respect or not worth taking seriously,举个🌰:

This poster is offensive and degrades women.

这张海报冒失无礼,有辱女性尊严。

原文始发于(LearnAndRecord):美国将为吸毒者开设首家注射中心